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NIGHT SHIFT PDF

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KING, Stephen - Night Shift - Battleground · Read more KING, Stephen - Night Shift - The Last Rung on the Ladder · Read more. GRAVEYARD SHIFT. Two A.M., Friday. Hall was sitting on the bench by the elevator, the only place on the third floor where a working joe could catch a smoke. CONTENTS. Cover Page. Title Page. Introduction by John D. MacDonald. Foreword. Jerusalem's Lot. Graveyard Shift. Night Surf. I Am the Doorway.


Night Shift Pdf

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Night shift refers to a work shift with at least. 3 hours of duty between and (Working Hours Act /). FRANCE. Night time: a period between. PDF | Synthesis of melatonin follows a circadian cycle, with high The adjusted means among rotating night shift nurses and midwives varied. PDF | Following the implementation of the European Working Time It is hoped that the advice will make the challenge of night shift work not.

Methods: This observational study included 11 healthy medical staff members seven women, median age 32 years. We examined each subject's platelet aggregation rates and the serum concentrations of eicosanoid mediators after night-shift work and on day-shift work without preceding night-shift work baseline.

Results: Platelet aggregation did not differ from baseline levels after night-shift work. However, serum cyclooxygenase COX -metabolized eicosanoid mediators, particularly thromboxane Tx B2 a stable metabolite of TxA2 and the most important marker of platelet activation , were significantly higher after the night-shift than at baseline median Conclusions: Although platelet aggregation did not increase, there was an increase in serum COX-metabolized eicosanoid mediators such as TxB2 in healthy medical staff after night-shift work.

This platelet hypersensitivity may be one of the mechanisms underlying the significant association between night-shift work and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Keywords: Cyclooxygenase, Eicosanoids, Platelet aggregation, Thromboxane B2 Introduction Various physiological functions of the human body exhibit circadian rhythms, including the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems 1 , 2. Rotating shift work, which disrupts normal circadian rhythms, has recently been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases 3 - 5.

Platelet activation arises from various causes, including vascular endothelial dysfunction, and is one of the most important causes of thrombus formation in the vessel walls of patients with atherosclerotic diseases such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous investigations have demonstrated circadian variation in vascular endothelial function 6 - 8 , and have shown that night-shift work disturbs circadian rhythms and impairs brachial endothelial function and coronary microcirculation 9 - 11 , suggesting that these factors may play a role in the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events associated with rotating shift work.

Similarly, it has been suggested that there may be circadian variation in platelet function 12 , However, the acute impact of night-shift work on platelet function remains unclear. To determine whether platelet function was greater after night-shift work than at the beginning of day-shift work, we examined the platelet aggregation rate using both the conventional light transmission method and a highly sensitive light scattering method.

We also measured the serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators bioactive lipids derived from metabolites of carbon arachidonic acid [AA] , which play important roles in platelet activation. Subjects and Methods This observational study compared the platelet aggregation rate, the serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators, hemodynamic data, and laboratory variables after night-shift work with those on day-shift work in healthy medical staff at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the study protocol was approved by the institutional review board at the Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, complying with the principles of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki IRB number Recruitment and subjects The subjects were recruited between July and December , mainly through advertisements on notice boards of the Department of Clinical Laboratory, University of Tokyo Hospital.

The following exclusion criteria were applied: i pregnancy or lactation; ii known history of or currently receiving drugs for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or a hematologic disease; iii history of any other severe disease, such as cancer or inflammation; or iv use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antiallergic drugs within the 10 days prior to blood collection. Study protocol To assess the platelet aggregation rate and serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators, fasting venous blood was collected from each subject at the following times: 1 on day-shift work without previous night-shift work baseline , and 2 after night-shift work post-shift.

Using paired data for each subject decreased the influence of variability between subjects and increased the likelihood of detecting differences between the baseline and post-shift conditions. The subjects were asked to refrain from drinking any beverages containing caffeine or glucose and eating any food after midnight on the test day. Results: Platelet aggregation did not differ from baseline levels after night-shift work.

However, serum cyclooxygenase COX -metabolized eicosanoid mediators, particularly thromboxane Tx B2 a stable metabolite of TxA2 and the most important marker of platelet activation , were significantly higher after the night-shift than at baseline median Conclusions: Although platelet aggregation did not increase, there was an increase in serum COX-metabolized eicosanoid mediators such as TxB2 in healthy medical staff after night-shift work. This platelet hypersensitivity may be one of the mechanisms underlying the significant association between night-shift work and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

Keywords: Cyclooxygenase, Eicosanoids, Platelet aggregation, Thromboxane B2 Introduction Various physiological functions of the human body exhibit circadian rhythms, including the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems 1 , 2.

Rotating shift work, which disrupts normal circadian rhythms, has recently been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases 3 - 5.

Night Shift

Platelet activation arises from various causes, including vascular endothelial dysfunction, and is one of the most important causes of thrombus formation in the vessel walls of patients with atherosclerotic diseases such as myocardial infarction or stroke.

Previous investigations have demonstrated circadian variation in vascular endothelial function 6 - 8 , and have shown that night-shift work disturbs circadian rhythms and impairs brachial endothelial function and coronary microcirculation 9 - 11 , suggesting that these factors may play a role in the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events associated with rotating shift work.

Similarly, it has been suggested that there may be circadian variation in platelet function 12 , However, the acute impact of night-shift work on platelet function remains unclear.

To determine whether platelet function was greater after night-shift work than at the beginning of day-shift work, we examined the platelet aggregation rate using both the conventional light transmission method and a highly sensitive light scattering method. We also measured the serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators bioactive lipids derived from metabolites of carbon arachidonic acid [AA] , which play important roles in platelet activation. Subjects and Methods This observational study compared the platelet aggregation rate, the serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators, hemodynamic data, and laboratory variables after night-shift work with those on day-shift work in healthy medical staff at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and the study protocol was approved by the institutional review board at the Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, complying with the principles of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki IRB number Recruitment and subjects The subjects were recruited between July and December , mainly through advertisements on notice boards of the Department of Clinical Laboratory, University of Tokyo Hospital.

The following exclusion criteria were applied: i pregnancy or lactation; ii known history of or currently receiving drugs for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or a hematologic disease; iii history of any other severe disease, such as cancer or inflammation; or iv use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antiallergic drugs within the 10 days prior to blood collection.

Associated Data

Study protocol To assess the platelet aggregation rate and serum concentration of eicosanoid mediators, fasting venous blood was collected from each subject at the following times: 1 on day-shift work without previous night-shift work baseline , and 2 after night-shift work post-shift. Using paired data for each subject decreased the influence of variability between subjects and increased the likelihood of detecting differences between the baseline and post-shift conditions.

The subjects were asked to refrain from drinking any beverages containing caffeine or glucose and eating any food after midnight on the test day. Blood was collected between and A. The blood samples were carefully drawn from an antecubital vein using a G butterfly needle.

Despite the fact that it was 9 p. Disney decorated offices and western attire that marks employees bodies, lead me to integrate the feminist discourse of embodiment into my research. Feminist geographers argue that the body, as a scale of analysis, provides a powerful understanding of how space and place are conceived based on gender, race, and class categories Longhurst, ; McDowell, ; Pratt, , ; Moss, ; Silvey, As illustrated in Figure 1, my investigation of transnational call center employment is based on a framework of social and economic embodiment, spatial access, and temporal entrapment.

Although the physical location of a call center remains fixed, the meaning embedded in the urban space it occupies shifts based on the time of day. The nightscape is primarily a male domain. For educated, middle and upper-class women, the nightscape brings forth gender and class connotations that mark their bodies as sites of transgression Cresswell, ; Domosh, Such dynamics evoke new questions about the spatial construction of social identities.

Research Validation Framework In addition, the meaning that is embodied in dayshift versus night shift employment intersects with the social construction of gender and class. In regards to spatial issues, shuttle transport at TYJ Corp. If all the employees are female, then, in addition to the driver, a security guard is on board. If one of the employees is a male, then a 8 All participant names have been changed to protect the identity of the individual.

However, the male employee is always the last one dropped off. This measure is necessary due to reports of the Mumbai police stopping the vans and accusing the female passengers of prostitution.

Employees carry identity cards as proof of employment, but it is not considered enough by police. In order for a woman to justify her existence in the urban nightscape she requires the presence of a male escort. Temporal entrapment is based on two dynamics. First, night shift labor may serve as a time-trap that marginalizes women.

By working the night shift, and inevitably sleeping thru the day, it is possible that women become further excluded from social and economic opportunities within the larger community. Shubhika and Sonia complain that since taking a call center job their social life has diminished because they have lost touch with close friends and hardly have time for their families.

Alternatively, working the night shift for a call center, albeit a position that is viewed as secondary and having limited prospects for upward mobility Kelkar et al.

Stephen King - Night Shift

Instead of constraining her social life, Drasti explains that call center employment allows her to befriend people from various walks of life that she otherwise would not have access to. The corporation provides this housing by renting an existing apartment style building and segregating each floor by sex, with a recreational area in the basement for all employees. The company pays the security deposit, the first month of rent, and provides employees with start-up provisions such as a bucket for bathing.

On the other hand, dormitory housing may represent a way in which companies confine their employees Boyer, ; Cope, : eat in the company cafeteria, live in the company dorm, and depend of the company doctor for medical care. Such norms exclude some women from pursuing night shift employment, or they place women in positions of having to beg more to gain permission to work such jobs.

In such cases, the temporal mobility of urban, educated women remains contingent upon a larger structural framework that provides surveillance and protection to its female employees during their home-to-work journey and within the call center itself. Conclusion Transnational call center employment provides women with relatively high paying jobs that were previously unavailable.

At the same time, call center positions have high attrition rates, are lower in salary compared to other IT positions, and are considered interim positions until better employment can be found Kelkar et al. Priti, for instance, had to submit proof of employment to her community housing association because neighbors questioned why she was going out at night.

The police were also sent to her house to question her mother and their watchman. Priti contends that her night shift wanderings would not be the subject of such scrutiny if she were a man. At the macro-level, the emergence of this industry also represents a significant shift in globalization.

In contrast to McDonalds selling french fries in Paris, but not requiring an American accent from its French employees, call center operations are based on the availability of workers trained to embody an American identity and cultural cues. This local-global nexus of identity formation, which serves as the basis for this industry, has not existed in previous periods. Yet the long-term impact of this industry on its participants, both the workers in India and customers in the United States, is not well known.

Important research questions that emerged from this paper include: how do female call center employees perceive the multiple identities they embody? And how does entry into transnational spaces impact how women view and represent themselves within the family unit and the larger community? Acknowledgements I sincerely appreciate the comments and suggestions provided by Kate Boyer, Doreen Mattingly, and an anonymous reviewer.

This research is funded by the David L. Boren Fellowship. References Acharya, Jyotirmayee and Ragnhild Lund. Gendered spaces: Socio-spatial relations of self-employed women in craft production, Orrisa, India. Norwegian Journal of Geography 56 3 , Adam, Barbara. The gendered time politics of globalization: Of shadowlands and elusive justice.

Feminist Review 3 70 , Agnew, John. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Balfour, Frederik. Business Week , Behar, Ruth. The vulnerable observer. In, Ruth Behar ed. Boston: Beacon Press, pp. Boyer, Kate. Place and the politics of virtue: Clerical work, corporate anxiety, and changing meanings of public womanhood in early twentieth- century Montreal.

Bonds, Anne. Calling on femininity? Gender, call Centers, and restructuring in the rural American West. Working the Night Shift 23 Butler, Judith. Castells, Manuel. End of Millennium.

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Oxford: Blackwell. Chengappa, Raj and Malini Goyal. Housekeepers to the world. India Today 27 46 , 18 November, Constable, Nicole. Cope, Meghan. Weaving the everyday: Identity, epace and power in Lawrence, Massachusetts, Urban Geography 17 2 : Cox, Kevin R.

Spaces of Globalization: Reasserting the Power of the Local. New York: Guilford Press. Transnationalism and the spaces of commodity culture. Progress in Human Geography 27 4 , Cresswell, Tim. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Dirsuweit, Teresa. Bodies, state discipline, and the performance of gender in a South African women's prison.

Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. Domosh, Mona Those 'gorgeous incongruities': Polite politics and public space on the streets of Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88 2 , Drucker, Susan J.

Economist, A world of opportunity , Elias, Marlene and Judith Carney. Shea butter, globalization, and women of Burkina Faso.

England, Kim. Suburban pink collar ghettos: The spatial entrapment of women? Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83 2 , And how does entry into transnational spaces impact how women view and represent themselves within the family unit and the larger community?

Kirk Patrick Mojica. Keywords: Cyclooxygenase, Eicosanoids, Platelet aggregation, Thromboxane B2 Introduction Various physiological functions of the human body exhibit circadian rhythms, including the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems 1 , 2.

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Measurement of eicosanoid mediators in serum An internal standard method was used to measure the serum concentrations of eicosanoid mediators. Mindspace has transformed this backroad area, formerly a municipal dumping ground for solid waste, into a premier destination for corporations.