UML IN 24 HOURS PDF
th Street, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Teach Yourself in Hours. Joseph Schmuller. UML. THIRD EDITION. Sams Teach Yourself UML in 24 Hours Table of Contents: Chapter 1 - Introducing the UML Chapter 2 - Understanding Obje The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is one of the most exciting tools in the world of system development today. The UML enables system builders to create. More than 50, previous readers have learned UML with Sams Teach Yourself UML in Hours. Expert author Joe Schmuller takes you through
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Provides a good introduction and overview of UML. Jun 08, El Mehdi added it. Really useful to see more examples about UML and to secure all the terms before the exam. Atila Yukselov rated it liked it Feb 07, Kelley rated it liked it Aug 23, Steve rated it liked it Apr 24, Waths rated it really liked it May 20, Sherri Dishon rated it it was amazing Sep 04, Abel rated it liked it Jan 18, Susan rated it liked it Jul 02, Daitona Carter rated it it was amazing Mar 23, Nicholas Butler rated it did not like it Jul 07, Franky rated it liked it Nov 02, David rated it it was ok Oct 08, Luipasture rated it it was amazing Nov 07, William Grant-Buckley rated it liked it Dec 18, Dimitri rated it really liked it Aug 11, Chris rated it really liked it Apr 14, Allen Elledge rated it liked it Apr 18, Michael Henson rated it really liked it Jan 02, David Polania rated it really liked it Dec 08, Riiuyan rated it it was amazing Mar 04, Stephan Renkens rated it liked it Jan 18, Thang Ngo rated it liked it Nov 02, Jason Greer rated it it was ok Dec 12, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
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If you like books and love to build cool products, we may be looking for you. About Joseph Schmuller. Joseph Schmuller. Other books in the series. Sams Teach Yourself Series 1 - 10 of books. Books by Joseph Schmuller. Trivia About Teach Yourself Um No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. In this hour, you'll learn those principles. You'll find out what makes objects tick and how to use them in analysis and design.
In the next hour, we'll begin to apply UML to these principles. Objects, Objects Everywhere Objects, concrete and otherwise, are all around us. They make up our world. As I pointed out in the previous hour, modern software typically simulates the world - or a small slice of it - so programs usually mimic the objects in the world. If we understand some essentials of objects, we'll comprehend what has to go into the software representations of them.
First and foremost, an object is an instance of a class a category. You and I, for example, are instances of the personclass. An object has structure. That is, it has attributes properties and behavior.
An object's behavior consists of the operations it carries out. Attributes and operations taken together are called features. As objects in the person-class, you and I each have these attributes: height, weight, and age.
You can imagine a number of others. We also perform these operations: eat, sleep, read, write, speak, go to work, and more. If we were to create a system that deals with information on people - say, a payroll system or a system for a human resources department - we'd likely incorporate some of these attributes and some of these operations in our software. In the world of object-orientation, a class serves another purpose in addition to categorization.
A class is a template for making objects. Think of it as a cookie-cutter that stamps out new objects. Some might argue that this is the same as categorization, but let's avoid that debate. Let's go back to our washing machine example. If we specify the washing machine class as having the attributes brand name, model name, serial number, and capacity - along with the operations add clothes, add detergent, remove clothes we have a mechanism for turning out new instances of the washing machine class.
That is, we can create new objects. NOTE: In Hour 3, you'll see that class names like "washing machine" are written as "WashingMachine" and feature names like "serial number" are written as "serialNumber. This is particularly important in the world of object-oriented software development. Although we won't focus on programming in this book, it helps your understanding of object-orientation if you know that classes in object-oriented programs can create new instances.
Figure 2. Here's something else to be aware of. Remember that the purpose of object-orientation is to develop software that reflects i.
The more attributes and behaviors we take into account, the more our model will be in tune with reality. In the washing machine example, we'll have a potentially more accurate model if we include the attributes drum volume, internal timer, trap, motor, and motor speed.
We might also increase the accuracy of the model if we include the operations add bleach, time the soak, time the wash, time the rinse, and time the spin.
What is UML?
Some Concepts Object-orientation goes beyond just attributes and behavior. It considers other aspects of objects as well. These aspects are called abstraction, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Three other important parts of object-orientation are message sending, associations, and aggregation. Let's examine each of these concepts. Abstraction Abstraction means, simply, to filter out an object's properties and operations until just the ones you need are left. What do I mean by "just the ones you need?
In our second pass at building a washing machine class we came up with more attributes and operations than the first. Was it worth it? If you're part of a development team that's ultimately going to create a computer program that simulates exactly how a washing machine does what it does, then it's definitely worth it. A computer program like that which might be useful to design engineers who are actually building a washing machine has to have enough in it make accurate predictions about what will happen when the washing machine is built, fully functioning, and washing clothes.
For this kind of program, in fact, we can filter out the serial number attribute, as it's probably not going to be very helpful. If, on the other hand, you're going to create software to track the transactions in a laundry that has a number of washing machines, it's probably not worth it. In this program, we might not need all the detailed attributes and operations we added in the preceding section. We might, however, want to include the serial number of each washing machine object.
In any case, what we're left with after we've made our decisions about what to include and what to exclude, is an "abstraction" of a washing machine. Inheritance A class, as I mentioned, is a category of objects and, in the software world, a template for creating new objects.
An object is an instance of a class. This idea has an important consequence: As an instance of a class, an object has all the characteristics of its class. This is called inheritance. Whatever attributes and operations we decide on for the washing machine class, each object in that class will inherit those attributes and operations.
Not only can an object inherit from a class, a class can inherit from another class. Washing machines, refrigerators, microwave ovens, toasters, dishwashers, radios, wafflemakers, blendors, and irons are all classes.
It's also the case that they're members of a more general class, appliances. An appliance has the attributes on-off switch and electric wire, and the operations turn-on and turn-off. Each of the appliance classes inherits those attributes as well. Thus, if we know something is an appliance, we know immediately that it has the appliance-class's attributes and operations. Another way to say this is that washing machine, refrigerator, microwave oven, etc.
The appliance class, in turn, is a superclass of all those others. Each appliance is a subclass of the appliance class. The appliance class is a superclass of each subclass. Inheritance doesn't have to stop there. Appliance, for example, is a subclass of the class household item. Another subclass of household item, furniture, has subclasses of its own. Polymorphism Sometimes an operation has the same name in different classes.
For example, you can open a door, you can open a window, you can open a newspaper, a present, a bank account, or a conversation. In each case, you're performing a different operation. In object-orientation, each class "knows" how that operation is supposed to take place. At first look, it would seem that this concept is more important to software developers than to modelers.
Software developers, after all, have to create the software that implements these methods in computer programs and they have to be aware of important differences among operations that might have the same name.
And they can build software classes that "know" what they're supposed to do. But polymorphism is important to modelers, too. It allows the modeler to speak to the client who's familiar with the slice of the world to be modeled in the client's own words and terminology. Sometimes that terminology naturally leads to operation-words like "open" that can have more than one meaning. Polymorphism enables the modeler to maintain that terminology without having to make up artificial words to maintain an unnecessary uniqueness of terms.
Encapsulation In a recent TV commercial, two people are discussing all the money they'll save if they dial a particular 7-digit prefix before dialing a long-distance phone call. One of them asks, incredulously, "How does that work? Who cares? When we watch a television show, we usually don't know or care about the complex electronics that sits in back of the TV screen and all the many operations that have to occur in order to paint the image on the screen.
The TV does what it does and hides the process from us.
UML Tutorial in PDF
Most other appliances work that way, too thankfully! That is, they hide the inner workings of their operations from the outside world and from other objects. Why is this important? In the software world, encapsulation helps cut down on the potential for bad things to happen. In a system that consists of objects, the objects depend on each other in various ways.
If one of them happens to malfunction and software engineers have to change it in some way, hiding its operations from other objects means that it probably won't be necessary to change those other objects.
Turning from software to reality, we see the importance of encapsulation in the objects we work with, too. Your computer monitor, in a sense, hides its operations from your computer's CPU.
When something goes wrong with your monitor, you either fix or replace it.
You probably won't have to fix or replace the CPU along with it. While we're on the subject, here's a related concept. An object hides what it does from other objects and from the outside world. For this reason, encapsulation is also called information-hiding. But an object does have to present a "face" to the outside world so we can initiate those operations.
The TV, for example, has a set of buttons either on the TV itself or on a remote. A washing machine has a set of dials that enable you to set temperature and water level. The TV's buttons and the washing machine's dials are called interfaces.
Message-Sending I've mentioned that in a system, objects work together. They do this by sending messages to one another. One object sends another a message to perform an operation, and the receiving object performs that operation. A TV and a remote present a nice intuitive example from the world around us.
When you want to watch a TV show, you hunt around for the remote, settle into your favorite chair, and push the "on" button. What happens? The remote-object sends a message literally! The TV-object receives this message, knows how to perform the turn-on operation, and turns itself on.
When you want to watch a different channel, you click the appropriate button on the remote, and the remote-object sends a different message - "change channel" - to the TV-object. The remote can also communicate with the TV via other messages for changing the volume, muting the volume, and setting up closed captioning. The remote-object sends a message to the TVobject to turn itself on. The TV object receives the message through its interface, an infrared receiver.???
Joseph: You said this already in the text. I deleted this.
Most of the things you do from the remote, you can also do by getting out of the chair, going to the TV, and clicking buttons on the TV. You might actually try that sometime!
The interface the TV presents to you the set of buttons is obviously not the same interface it presents to the remote an infrared receiver. Associations Another common occurrence is that objects are typically related to one another in some fashion. For example, when you turn on your TV, in object-oriented terms you're in an association with your TV.
The "turn-on" association is unidirectional one-way. That is, you turn your TV on. Unless you watch way too much television, however, it doesn't return the favor.
Other associations, like "is married to," are bidirectional. When you turn on your TV, you're in a undirectional association with it. Sometimes an object may be associated with another in more than one way. If you and your coworker are friends, that's an example. You're in an "is the friend of" association, as well as an "is the coworker of" association.
A class can be associated with more than one other class. A person can ride in a car, and a person can also ride in a bus. See Figure 2. Multiplicity is an important aspect of associations among objects.
It tells the number of objects in one class that relate to a single object of the associated class. For example, in a typical college course, the course is taught by a single instructor. The course and the instructor are in a one-to-one association. In a proseminar, however, several instructors might teach the course throughout the semester. In that case, the course and the instructor are in a one-to-many association.
You can find all kinds of multiplicities if you look hard enough. A bicycle rides on two tires a one-to-two multiplicity , a tricycle rides on three, and eighteen-wheeler on eighteen. Aggregation Think about your computer system. It consists of a CPU box, a keyboard, a mouse, a monitor, a CD-ROM drive, one or more hard drives, a modem, a diskette drive, a printer, and possibly some speakers. Inside the CPU box along with the aforementioned drives, you have a CPU, a graphics card, a sound card, and some other elements you'd undoubtedly find it hard to live without.
Your computer is an aggregation, another kind of association among objects. Like many other things worth having, the computer is made from a number of different types of components. You can probably come up with numerous examples of aggregations.
One form of aggregation involves a strong relationship between an aggregate object and its component objects. It's called composition. The key to composition is that the component only exists as a component within the composite object. For example, a shirt is a composite of a body, a collar, sleeves, buttons, button-holes, and cuffs.
Do away with the shirt and the collar becomes useless. Sometimes, a component in a composite doesn't last as long as the composite itself. The leaves on a tree can die out before tree does.
If you destroy the tree, the leaves also die. If you destroy the composite, you destroy the component as well. Aggregation and composition are important because they reflect extremely common occurrences, and thus help you create models that closely resemble reality. The Payoff Objects and their associations form the backbone of functioning systems. In order to model those systems, you have to understand what those associations are. If you're aware of the possible types of associations, you'll have a well-stocked bag of tricks when you talk to clients about their needs, gather their requirements, and create models of the sytems that help them meet their business challenges.
The important thing is to use the concepts of object-orientation to help you understand the client's area of knowledge his or her domain , and to illustrate your understanding to the client in terms that he or she understands.
That's where the UML comes in. In the next three hours, you'll learn how to apply the UML to visualize the concepts you learned in this hour. Summary Object-orientation is a mindset that depends on a few fundamental principles. A class is a general category of objects that have the same attributes and operations. When you create an object, the problem area you're working in determines how many of the attributes and operations to consider.
Inheritance is an important aspect of object-orientation: an object inherits the attributes and operations of its class. A class can also inherit attributes and operations from another class.
Polymorphism is another important aspect. It specifies that an operation can have the same name in different classes, and each class will perform the operation in a different way. Objects hide the performance of their operations from other objects and from the outside world. Each object presents an interface so that other objects and people can get it to perform its operations. Objects work together by sending messages to one another. The messages are requests to perform operations.
Objects are typically associated with one another. The association can take a variety of forms. An object in one class may associate with any number of objects in another.
Aggregation is a type of association. An aggregate object consists of a set of component objects. A composition is a special kind of aggregation.
In a composite object, the components exist only as part of the composite. You said that object-orientation has taken the software world by storm. Aren't some important applications non-object-oriented? The ones that aren't object-oriented are often the so-called "legacy" systems - programs that in many cases are starting to show their age.
Object-orientation offers numerous advantages, like reusability and fast development time. For these reasons, you're likely to see new applications and rewritten versions of many legacy applications written the object-oriented way. Workshop To review what you've learned about object-orientation, try your hand at these quiz questions.
What is an "object? How do objects work together? What does "multiplicity" indicate? Can two objects be associated with one another in more than one way? Exercises This is a theoretical Hour, so I haven't included any exercises. You'll see quite a few in the Hours to come, however! Answers for Chapter 2 Quiz 1. Multiplicity indicates the number of objects of one class that relate to one object of an associated class 4.
Two persons, for example, can be associated as friends and as coworkers.
In this hour, you'll firm up your knowledge of object-orientation as you learn more about the UML. The name of the class is, by convention, a word with an initial uppercase letter. It appears near the top of the rectangle. If our class has a two-word name, we join the two words together and capitalize the first letter of the second word as we did for WashingMachine in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Another UML construct, the package, can play a role in the name of a class. As you might recall, UML represents a package as a tabbed folder whose name is a text string.
See Figure 3.
If the WashingMachine class is part of a package called Household appliances, you can give it the name Household appliances::WashingMachine. The double colons separate the package name on the left from the class name on the right. This type of class name is called a path name. Attributes An attribute is a property of a class. It describes a range of values that the property may hold in objects i.
A class may have zero or more attributes. By convention, a one-word attribute name is written in lowercase letters. If the name consists of more than one word, the words are joined and each word other than the first word begins with an uppercase letter. The list of attribute names begins below a line separating them from the class name, as Figure 3. Every object of the class has a specific value for every attribute. Note that an object's name begins with a lowercase letter, precedes a colon that precedes the class name, and the whole name is underlined.
It's also possible to have an anonymous instance like :WashingMachine.
The UML gives you the option of indicating additional information for attributes. In the icon for the class, you can specify a type for each attribute's value. Possible types include string, floating-point number, integer, and Boolean and other enumerated types. To indicate a type use a colon to separate the attribute-name from the type.
You can also indicate a default value for an attribute. Like an attribute-name, an operation's name is all in lowercase if it's one word. If the name consists of more than one word, join the words and begin all words after the first with an uppercase letter. The list of operations begins below a line that separates the operations from the attributes as seen in Figure 3. Just as you can indicate additional information for attributes, you can indicate additional information for operations. In the parentheses that follow an operation-name, you can show the parameter that the operation works on, along with that parameter's type.
One kind of operation, the function, returns a value after it finishes doing its work. For a function, you can show the value it returns and that value's type. These pieces of information about an operation are called the operation's signature. Attributes, Operations, and Visualization We've been dealing with classes in isolation thus far, and showing all the attributes and operations of a class. In practice, however, you'll show more than one class at a time.
When you do that, it's typically not useful to always display all the attributes and operations.
To do so would make the diagram way too busy. Instead, you can just show the class name and leave either the attribute area or the operation area empty or leave them both empty , as Figure 3. Sometimes it might be helpful to show some but not all of the attributes or operations. To indicate that you've only shown some of them, you follow the list of the ones you've shown with three dots " This is called an ellipsis, and omitting some or all of the attributes or operations is called eliding a class.
If you have a long list of attributes or operations, you can use a stereotype to organize in ways that will make the list comprehensible. A stereotype is the UML's way of enabling you to extend it: It allows you to create new elements that are specific to the particular problem you're trying to solve.
All You Need to Know About UML Diagrams: Types and 5+ Examples
As I mentioned in Hour 1, you show a stereotype as a name enclosed inside two pairs of small angle-brackets called guillemets. For an attribute list, you can use a stereotype as a heading for a subset of the attributes, as in Figure 3. NOTE: The stereotype is a flexible construct. You can use it in many different ways. For example, you can use it above the name of a class in a class icon to indicate something about the role that class plays.
Responsibilities and Constraints The class icon enables you to specify still another type of information about a class. In an area below the operations list, you can show the class's responsibility. The responsibility is a description of what the class has to do - i. A washing machine, for example, has the responsibility of taking dirty clothes as input and producing clean clothes as output.
In the icon, you indicate responsibilities in an area below the area that contains the operations. The idea here is to include enough information to describe a class in an unambiguous way. Indicating the class's responsibilities is an informal way to eliminate ambiguity. A slightly more formal way is to add "constraints," free-form text enclosed in curly brackets. The bracketed text specifies one or more rules the class follows. For example, suppose in the WashingMachine class you wanted to specify that the capacity of a washer can only be 16, 18, or 20 lbs and thus "constrain" the WashingMachine class's capacity attribute.
An advanced and sometimes useful tool, OCL has its own set of rules, terms, and operators. Attached Notes Above and beyond attributes, operations, responsibilities, and constraints, you can add still more information to a class in the form of notes attached to the class.
It's usually the case that you'll add a note to an attribute or operation. NOTE: A note can contain a graphic as well as text. As you talk with clients, analyze their area of knowledge, and design computer systems that solve problems in that area, you learn the terminology and model the terms as classes in the UML. In your conversations with clients, be alert to the nouns they use to describe the entities in their business.
These nouns will become the classes in your model. Be alert also to the verbs that you hear, as these will constitute the operations in those classes. The attributes will emerge as nouns related to the class nouns. Once you have a core list of classes, question the clients as to what each class is supposed to do within the business. Their answers will tell you the class responsibilities.
Suppose you're an analyst building a model of the game of basketball, and you're interviewing a coach in order to understand the game. The conversation might go something like this: Analyst: "Coach, what's basketball all about? Each team consists of five players: two guards, two forwards, and a center. Each team advances the ball toward the basket with the objective of ultimately shooting the ball through the basket. But they have to take a shot at the basket before the shot clock expires.
That's 24 seconds in the pros, 30 seconds in international play, and 45 seconds in college to take a shot once you get possession of the ball. In that case, it's three points.Soapy water leaves via the drain 6. And Now a Word from Our Sponsor. Business professionals are not generally interested in composite structure diagrams because their main focus is on the top level view of components and how they communicate with one the other.
It appears near the top of the rectangle. It's probably the case that most of them have attributes properties and that they behave in a certain way.
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