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One thing I try to do with my students is to try to help them understand how to frame a problem. You have to start ideating. There are a zillion tools and techniques to help you generate interesting ideas. This has been one of the biggest challenges in creativity research: How do you get beyond the first obvious solution?

Brainstorming is a skill like playing basketball. You need to keep practicing and practicing. And then you have to learn how to use these rules to your advantage. Would you say brainstorming is a team sport? You need to have a team that knows how to pass the ball. You want to keep moving forward and going beyond the first wave of ideas and the second wave of ideas and keep pushing.

The goal of brainstorming is to make the whole greater than the sum of the parts, and great brainstormers do that—just like great basketball players.

We all get better with practice and with encouragement and with environments that stimulate our creativity. They are the cranes that pull us out of well-worn ruts and put us on a path toward progress.

Without creativity we are not just condemned to a life of repetition, but to a life that slips backward. In fact, the biggest failures of our lives are not those of execution, but failures of imagination. And creativity is at the heart of invention. It required both a breadth of knowledge and a healthy dose of imagination. At STVP our mission is to provide students in all fields with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to seize opportunities and creatively solve major world problems.

On the first day of class, we start with a very simple challenge: redesigning a name tag. The text is too small to read. The students laugh when they realize that they too have been frustrated by the same problems. Within fifteen minutes the class has replaced the name tags hanging around their necks with beautifully decorated pieces of paper with their names in large text. And the new name tags are pinned neatly to their shirts. But I have something else in mind…. I collect all of the new name tags and put them in the shredder.

They viewed themselves as historical investigators and gained critical-thinking skills that they would never have learned had they merely memorized a list of facts.

By redesigning the way history is taught, giving students diverse and often contradictory information, we help students learn how to look at the world with different frames of reference.

There are some entertaining ways to practice changing your perspective. One of my favorites is to analyze jokes. Most are funny because they change the frame of the story when we least expect it. Here is an example: Two men are playing golf on a lovely day.

As the first man is about to tee off, a funeral procession goes by in the cemetery next door. He stops, takes off his hat, and bows his head. She and I were married for twenty-five years. At first the golfer appears thoughtful, but he instantly turns into a jerk when you learn that the deceased person was his wife.

Another classic example comes from one of the Pink Panther movies: Does your dog bite? I thought you said your dog did not bite! That is not my dog. Again, the frame shifts at the end of the joke when you realize they are talking about two different dogs. Take a careful look at jokes, and you will find that the creativity and humor usually come from shifting the frame. Reframing problems takes effort, attention, and practice, and allows you to see the world around you in a brand-new light.

You get pumps with training wheels. Or, what do you get when you cross a dessert plate with an ice-cube tray? The goal of their book is to help readers become comfortable creating ridiculous ideas, since many brilliant ideas seem really crazy when they are initially conceived. By exploring ways to fuse them together, we see many surprising and interesting ideas surface. For example, an outfit worn by a baby with a mop on its belly that allows the baby to clean the floor while crawling around; a shirt with a matrix on the back, so that you can tell someone exactly where to scratch; an upside-down umbrella that allows you to collect water when you are walking in the rain; or eyeglasses with arms that can be removed to be used as chopsticks.

These inventions might not be immediately practical, but each one opens a door to new ideas that just might be. Being able to connect and combine nonobvious ideas and objects is essential for innovation and a key part of the creative-thinking process.

Along with your ability to reframe problems, it engages your imagination and thereby unlocks your Innovation Engine. Essentially, you need to be able to reorganize and rearrange the things you know and the resources you have in order to come up with brand-new ideas. One way to practice connecting and combining ideas is to try your hand at the weekly New Yorker Cartoon Caption Contest. Each week the last page of the New Yorker has a cartoon without a caption.

Readers submit captions, and the following week three are chosen to showcase in the magazine. All readers are invited to vote on their favorites. The cartoons always contain images that rarely go together, are out of place, or are out of scale. It is up to you to find a humorous way to tie the story together. The winning captions combine ideas with the images in unexpected ways. Below are a couple of examples of New Yorker cartoons without their captions. In one, a monster is at a dinner party, and in the other, a hobby horse is in an office.

What caption would you create for each? The captions that appeared in the magazine can be found in the notes. He realized that the odds of winning the contest are about one in ten thousand. Therefore, he had to come up with something truly original. To do this, Matthew wrote a list of concepts or objects that had something to do with the image. In his case, the cartoon showed a man and a woman in bed wearing protective hazardous-material suits. He then spent five minutes brainstorming about all his associations for those words.

Those new associations were then applied back to the cartoon and connected in new ways. This was certainly an edgy project! His goal was to inspire these students in ways they had never imagined. Not only did they have a wild time taking on this provocative assignment, but they also learned that by connecting devices that had never been connected before, they could come up with surprisingly innovative products that stimulate both the mind and the body, from ears to toes, in unusual ways.

On a recent trip to Japan, I asked those who were going to attend my lecture to do a similar advance assignment. They were required to pick two household objects that are totally unrelated, such as a flower vase and a shoe, and figure out some way to combine them to create something novel and valuable.

The results came in several different flavors. Some were alternative, unintended uses for the objects. Others enhanced the functionality of an existing object. And then there were those rare results in which something totally brand new was created using the two familiar objects. The unintended-use solutions from the Japanese audience included attaching an inverted baseball cap to the wall with thumbtacks to make a small basketball hoop, making an earring stand out of an egg cup and a sponge, and using lipstick and nail polish to paint pictures.

In a similar vein, an art exhibit at San Francisco International Airport that I saw when I returned explored the growing interest in reusing discarded items in unintended ways. The displayed items included a large bowl made out of a car tire that had been turned inside out, beautiful jewelry made from used bottle caps, and my favorite, a dress made from fabric that was composed of candy wrappers.

Many of the Japanese creations that enhanced the functionality of existing objects involved clocks. For example, one person combined an alarm clock with vocabulary flash cards. In the morning, when the alarm clock goes off, you need to get a certain number of words correct in a flash quiz in order to turn off the alarm. Another person combined a clock with a room fragrance spray such that the clock released different scents at different times of day; morning scents are energizing, and evening scents are relaxing.

The most touching response came from a man who wrote that he and his wife had two small children and were expecting a third child when they lost the pregnancy. They were both terribly distraught. One day the man returned home from work and his three-year-old son presented him with a doll he had created out of rolled-up newspaper and some rubber bands.

This is for you. On a different scale, this type of cross-pollination takes place in our communities as ideas are randomly rearranged from cross-cultural sources. According to the article, communities that are at the crossroads of the world, such as ancient Alexandria and Istanbul or modern Hong Kong, London, and New York, which attract people from vastly different cultures, benefit from the cross-pollination of ideas and increased creativity. She has done extensive work on communities that are primed for innovation and has studied the critical factors at play in determining whether a city will be a hub of creativity.

Her book Regional Advantage looks at the factors that contribute to the high levels of innovation and entrepreneurship in Silicon Valley. Essentially, Silicon Valley innovation is robust because of the extensive cross-pollination of ideas between individuals and companies.

In Silicon Valley the firms are concentrated in a small area, which leads to more informal interactions and easier formal connections. There are also very low cultural barriers to communication between people of different backgrounds and socioeconomic levels.

This means that the parents sitting in the stands watching their kids play baseball will reflect that demographic diversity.

This is one of the simplest and best climate change graphics we’ve ever seen

The informal discussions that take place often lead to interesting opportunities that might not happen elsewhere. A company executive or venture capitalist is likely to be sitting next to an engineer starting a new company. Their casual conversations while watching their kids play ball often lead to helpful advice, introductions to potential employees, or even funding for a new venture.

The program is open to the public and is followed by an informal mixer. This provides students, faculty, entrepreneurs, investors, and visitors with an opportunity to hear about the latest ideas and to meet one another.

Universities are designed to foster the flow of ideas across disciplines. This is why so much innovation takes place within their walls. They bring together people from different disciplines and cultures from all over the world and give them a place to work together. The students who come to learn are a great source of cross-pollination, taking classes in different fields and sharing diverse ideas with one another. They are essentially the bees that go from flower to flower sharing ideas.

There are ways to encourage and enhance this type of cross-pollination. AnnaLee Saxenian acknowledges that innovation is almost always a social endeavor, requiring interaction with others.

This interaction can be in the form of observing others, gaining advice, or direct collaboration. The more diverse the inputs, the more interesting and innovative the outputs. For instance, places in the world that have a large influx of immigrants end up with fascinating food fusions. A great example is Lima, Peru, where a new cuisine has emerged from the mixing of local Latin American ingredients and traditional Spanish dishes with a strong influence from the cuisines of China, Italy, Africa, and Japan.

Immigrants from all of these countries have settled in Lima, combining their recipes with those of the region.

Building upon existing ideas and inventions is another way to foster innovation. In fact, when you ask artists of all types where they get their inspiration, they can usually list others before them who set the stage for their work.

Painters draw upon the tools, techniques, and approaches of other artists; musicians build upon the styles of other musicians they have heard; writers are influenced by literature they have read; and inventors build upon the creations of others. Not only is the process of connecting ideas and objects valuable for creativity—it also feels terrific.

This occurs when we hear the punch line of a joke, when we complete a puzzle, and when we discover patterns in a seemingly random information set. This makes perfect sense, since our brains are designed to look for patterns. Connecting and combining ideas occurs organically whenever people of different backgrounds and cultures get together.

Some people are so aware of this that they literally go out of their way to create this type of cross-pollination in their lives in order to stir up their thinking and help them generate new ideas. I once met a salesman on an airplane who told me that he downloads airline tickets for around-the-world flights with as many stops as possible.

His goal is not only to get to his destination, but to meet all the people he can along the way. He knows that airports and airplanes are filled with people from all walks of life, from all professions, and with an endless variety of skills and interests. He talks with everyone in his path and makes valuable connections.

For example, on a recent flight back from a business trip to Hawaii, I met a man named Patrick Connolly, who is the founder of Obscura Digital in San Francisco, which maps remarkably creative video onto any space, including the outside of the Guggenheim Museum or Trump Towers, to transform them into a multimedia extravaganza.

The work he was doing was directly related to the topics I was teaching in my creativity class the next week on designing spaces to enhance innovation.

I eagerly asked if he would come to class to share his experience. Patrick was happy to do so. Very innovative companies, such a Twitter, know how important this type of cross- pollination is to creativity in their businesses, and they make an effort to hire people with unusual skills, knowing that diversity of thinking will certainly influence the development of their products. She said that the hiring practices at Twitter guarantee that all employees are bright and skilled at their jobs, but are also interested in other unrelated pursuits.

Knowing this results in random conversations between employees in the elevator, at lunch, and in the hallways. Shared interests surface, and the web of people becomes even more intertwined. These unplanned conversations often lead to fascinating new ideas.

Elizabeth is a great example herself; she is a top ultramarathon runner, professional designer, and former venture capitalist. Her artistic talents have deeply influenced the ways Elizabeth builds the culture at Twitter.

For instance, whenever a new employee starts, she designs and prints a beautiful handmade welcome card on her antique letterpress. Connecting ideas that do not naturally go together is also the hallmark of innovative scientific research.

Scientists who are able to do this are the ones who make the real breakthroughs. Michele Barry, the Dean for Global Health at Stanford, spends a good part of her time in the developing world trying to get to the root cause of diseases in order to wipe them out.

While in Bangladesh she discussed with Bangladeshi investigators why pregnant women in the region have a much higher rate of dangerously high blood pressure. The answer was not obvious at all.

However, she and her colleagues are now trying to connect this illness to the rising sea level in the country. The land in Bangladesh is sinking, causing ocean water to infiltrate the rice fields. As a result, the rice has a higher salt content. Since pregnant women are prone to salt retention, this increase in salt in their diet may lead to higher blood pressure.

This is also a great example of how two important issues—global warming and public health—intersect with each other. There are just as many ticks—the vector for this disease—across all the regions, but some ticks appear to be immune to the disease. By looking beyond the obvious, Lane and Quistad realized that there are many more blue-belly lizards in the areas where there is low Lyme disease. It turns out that the lizards are naturally immune to Lyme disease. So if a tick consumes the blood of a lizard, the Lyme disease in its system is destroyed.

With a large number of lizards in an area, it is much more likely that a person there will be bitten by a tick that has already bitten a lizard and is now immune.

This surprising and important finding was only revealed because the scientists were willing and able to connect seemingly unrelated observations and patterns. Ideas can be drawn from anywhere and connected at any time. Mir Imran, the founder and chairman of InCube Labs, draws inspiration for his medical inventions by connecting and combining insights from a wide range of unrelated sources, including scientific literature, patients, physicians, and even his own personal experiences. Mir was literally a quadriplegic—unable to use any of his four limbs—for many months, but eventually recovered.

Eight years later his mother was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Mir wondered if the body could create an immune response to its own cancer cells. Once he put these puzzle pieces together, it seemed obvious. In time we will see if these observations and connections lead to more effective cures for cancer.

A great way to experiment with connections on a day-to-day basis is to use metaphors and analogies. Essentially, by comparing one thing with another you uncover fascinating parallels that open up a world of new ideas. For example, Rory McDonald, who is studying how companies in a particular industry influence each other, drew upon a metaphor for inspiration.

Rory, who has four young children, decided to explore the idea that companies influence each other the same way kids do when they engage in parallel play. When kids are playing with blocks, if one child builds a castle, it is more likely that another child will build one, too.

If a child adds on a tower, then others will do the same. Rory is studying the same type of behavior in the business world, and he is exploring its ramifications.

In order to come up with this metaphor, Rory used both his observation skills and his keen ability to connect and combine ideas. Metaphors and analogies are extremely powerful connectors, because they lead you to very different ways of looking at problems.

In a recent study, Lera Boroditsky and Paul Thibodeau demonstrated that we get quite different sets of solutions depending on which metaphors we use to describe urban crime. If urban crime is described as a virus, then the solutions are predominantly shaped around social reforms, such as changing laws. However, if crime is described as a monster in our community, then the solutions focus on dealing with the individuals involved. For example, what solutions would result if crime is compared to tracking mud into a clean house, or an unwanted chemical reaction?

Connecting unexpected people, places, objects, and ideas provides a huge boost to your imagination. You can practice this skill by using provocative metaphors, interacting with those outside your normal circles, building on existing ideas, and finding inspiration in unlikely places. These approaches enhance creative thinking and are terrific tools for generating fresh ideas. Please line up according to your birthdays, from January 1 to December Without talking. Everyone smiles and nods, confident that they have cracked the code.

They slowly mill around the room using their new sign language to share their birthdays as they quietly form a line. When I tell them that they have one minute to go, they start signing faster and eventually snap into a line as I count down from ten to zero. We then go through the line to see how well they did, and the giggling begins as they discover how many people are way out of place.

Someone in the group explains that at first they thought that the task was impossible, and then, when someone started using sign language by raising a few fingers in the air, they all followed suit. After a few seconds, someone inevitably suggests that they could have written down their birthdays on a piece of paper. As suggested, they could have written their birthdays on a piece of paper. Someone could have jumped up on a chair and played the role of director, instructing others to move into the right places.

They could have created a time line on the floor and had everyone find their spot. Or they could have sung their birthdays. And, of course, they could have used any combination of these approaches. The results of this simple exercise are surprisingly predictable across ages and cultures, and it uncovers a very important point: The first answers to any problem are not always the best answers. In fact, much better solutions are usually waiting to be unearthed.


Unfortunately, most people are satisfied with the first solution they find, missing the opportunity to come up with innovative approaches that require more effort to discover.

His message is that the first solutions you come up with when faced with a problem are obvious. The second set is more interesting, and the third set of ideas you generate gets progressively more creative. You need to make a concerted effort to move beyond the first and second waves of ideas in order to come up with those that push the boundaries and test the limits.

How is this actually done? This is an age-old question that has been addressed in innumerable ways. The goal is to eliminate these contradictions in order to generate truly unique and creative solutions. Here is a sample success story: In , OnTech debuted a single-serving, self-heating container that can be used as packaging for soup, coffee, tea, or even baby formula. Among the brands that have licensed the technology are a line of gourmet coffees produced by celebrity chef Wolfgang Puck and Hillside soups and coffees.

For example, they chose No. Presto, a new product was born.

At first, the highly analytical participants are reluctant, since this is way outside their normal mode of operation. But that is the point! As they work at writing, they soon get comfortable tapping into their emotions for inspiration, opening up a whole new world of ideas.

They start playing with words in new ways and soon develop the ability to go beyond the first right answer. This skill spills over into their day-to-day lives, as they become increasingly proficient at looking for alternative ways to approach the challenges of leading and managing their organizations.

He asks them each to select a piece of music that resonates for them. They then have to make a video that accompanies the song they chose. The music opens up a door to their emotions, which unlocks their imagination. Even the most reserved and self-reported uncreative people blossom when given this task and come up with remarkably innovative results. As these vastly different approaches demonstrate, there is more than one way to push beyond obvious answers to get novel ideas.

However, some tools have proved to be more consistently successful. My favorite is brainstorming. Done well, brainstorming enables you to get past the first set of ideas pretty quickly and on to those that are much less obvious. Brainstorming was first popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in his book Applied Imagination, published in after he had been using this approach for more than a dozen years. In this book he outlines a series of rules for brainstorming sessions.

The four core tenets of his approach are deferring judgment, generating lots of ideas, encouraging unusual ideas, and combining ideas. They think it is as easy as getting a bunch of people in a room and throwing out ideas. In fact, brainstorming is quite hard, and many of the guidelines that make it work are not intuitive or natural. For example, it is really difficult to reserve judgment when someone suggests an idea that you think is stupid.

And it is hard to continue generating ideas once you think you have found a viable solution. Both of these are critically important, however, when your goal is to come up with truly breakthrough ideas. Below is a set of guidelines to consider when hosting a brainstorming session, inspired by Tom Kelley in his book The Art of Innovation.

Brainstorming is much like a dance, and similar to dancing you need the proper space to encourage a fluid brainstorming process. First, there has to be room for people to move around. In addition, just like dancing, brainstorming needs to be done standing up. This point is not trivial. By standing up instead of sitting, the group is much more energetic and engaged.

Standing also allows for quick changes in the flow of people and ideas. You also need space to capture all the ideas along the way.

The most common approach is to use whiteboards or flip charts. Keep in mind that the larger the space for ideas, the more ideas you will get. In fact, when you run out of space, you often run out of ideas.

Or you can use a bank of windows as a surface for sticky notes. By the time you are done, all the walls and windows should be covered with colorful pieces of paper. Who should participate? Choosing brainstorming participants is critically important. It is not good enough to randomly scoop up a few people and bring them in to brainstorm.

You need to be very thoughtful about who is in the room. The people invited to a brainstorming session should have different points of view and expertise on the topic. Keep in mind that this is not the same group of people who will make the final decisions at the end of the brainstorming session. That is so important that I will restate it: If you are going to design a new car, for example, you need to include people with different perspectives and knowledge about cars.

These might include the engineers who will build it, the customers who will download it, the salespeople who will sell it, the mechanics who will repair it, the valets who will park it, and so on.

Dennis Boyle, at the design firm IDEO, says that being invited to a brainstorming session is a huge honor. It is a sign that your particular perspective is important. Make sure that you communicate that to those who are invited to a brainstorming session. The size of the group is also an issue. There is always a tension between having many points of view and being able to have one conversation where everyone contributes.

Once a team got larger than that, it was broken in two. This is a great guideline for brainstorming, too. With six to eight people and a couple of pizzas you have a group who can bring a range of perspectives and can also easily interact.

What is the brainstorming topic? The framing of the topic is a critical decision. Finding the right balance is important.

Recall the earlier discussion in chapter 1 about framing problems. The question you ask is the frame into which the solutions will fall.

A provocative or surprising question is usually the most generative. What else should be in the room? It is helpful to fill the room with things that will stimulate the discussion. For example, if you are brainstorming about the design for a new pen, then you should have lots of different writing instruments, as well as interesting gadgets and toys to spark your imagination. You need to have paper and markers for everyone.

It is also incredibly helpful to have other simple prototyping materials, because you will want to mock up a quick example. These include tape, scissors, cardboard, rubber bands, and so forth. And a three-dimensional prototype often communicates much more than words or a two-dimensional drawing. How do you start a brainstorming session? Doing a short warm-up exercise can lubricate the transition. There are zillions of ways to do this, from writing a progressive poem together to doing Mad Libs.

Although it might feel a bit awkward at first, it is important to mark the transition into a brainstorming session in some way and to give the participants a chance to warm up their imagination, just as an athlete warms up before a race.

What are the rules of brainstorming? Real rules exist for effective brainstorming—the most important of which is that there are no bad ideas.

In fact, no matter how strange the idea, your job is to build on it. The key is to embrace all ideas that are generated and to work with them for a while. Brainstorming is a way to explore all the possibilities, whether they are inspiring or insipid. This is the biggest challenge for most people—they feel a need to evaluate ideas as they are generated.

This alone will kill a brainstorming session. It is also important to encourage wild and crazy ideas. Even though they may seem strange, there may be a gem hidden inside. The key is to generate as many ideas as possible. Give yourself a goal, such as coming up with five hundred new flavors of ice cream. Once you have come up with three hundred, you know that you only have two hundred to go.

You have moved beyond the first waves of ideas and are posed to generate the most interesting and surprising recipes. It is important to remember that each idea is a seed that has the potential to grow into something remarkable. And the more ideas you have, the better. Just like seeds, you need a large number in order to find the ones that have the greatest promise. One way to break free from expected ideas is to encourage silly or stupid ideas.

This unleashes ideas that would never have surfaced if they only focused on their best ideas. When people are asked to generate bad ideas, they defer judgment and push beyond obvious solutions.

In fact, the craziest ideas very often turn out to be the most interesting ones when looked at through the frame of possibility. What is the brainstorming process? Once you have the right space, people, and question, and have reminded everyone of the rules, your goal is to make the process as fluid as possible. Only one conversation should be happening at a time, so that everyone is in sync. One approach is to remove the most obvious solutions from the pool of possibilities, so that you have to come up with something else.

This forces you to tackle the challenge without the expected tool in your toolbox. For example, if you are brainstorming about ways to make it easier to park your car in a busy city, the expected answer is to add more parking spaces. If you eliminate that possibility, then other, less obvious answers will emerge. During a brainstorming session, you should also throw out surprising and provocative prompts along the way that will help the group push past their assumptions.

For example, if you are coming up with ideas for a new playground, you could ask how someone might design a playground on the moon or underwater. You could ask how you might design it one hundred years in the future or in the past. You could ask how a child would design it or someone with a disability.

You could ask how you would design it with one dollar or with a million dollars. Or, you can solicit ideas for the most dangerous playground in the world. In fact, studies have shown that the farther away you get from your current place and time, both physically and mentally, the more imaginative your ideas. These prompts provide a convenient way to do this.

In a perfect brainstorm, there is a rhythm to the discussion, and it feels like a dance. Someone comes up with an idea, and several people build on it for a short time.

Then you jump to a new approach. The short statements are like newspaper headlines for each of the ideas. How are ideas captured? Make sure that everyone has a pen and paper or sticky notes. If only one person is at the board writing down ideas, then they control which ideas are captured.

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In addition, if everyone has a pen and paper, they can write or draw their ideas in real time, without having to wait for a hole in the conversation. When they do speak up, they will have already captured their idea, so it will be faster to add it to the board. Using sticky notes enables each person to write down ideas as they arise and then put them on the board when the time is right.

Sticky notes also allow you to reorganize and cluster similar ideas together as patterns emerge. All this adds to the creative spirit of the brainstorming session. Another valuable way to capture all your ideas is using mind mapping.

This is essentially a nonlinear way to collect ideas. Starting with a central topic on the board, you draw lines to words or drawings with related information, and then add details to those on smaller branches. For example, if you were using a mind map to brainstorm about the plot for a new mystery novel, you might put the title in the middle of a mind map.

You would then draw lines to text or images around the center, which might include characters, settings, story line, and historical context. You can add ideas to each of these on smaller branches around them. A quick online image search for mind maps reveals an endless array that you can use for inspiration. Here is a sample mind map created by Paul Foreman with main branches that deal with who, what, when, where, and why to mind-map: How much time does a brainstorming session take?

It is generally impossible to keep the energy needed for productive brainstorming going for more than about an hour.

This means that there should be a clear limit to the amount of time you brainstorm. A flash brainstorming session of ten to fifteen minutes will work if all the participants know each other well and can quickly dive into idea generation. A longer session of forty-five to sixty minutes yields the best results. A key is to make the session long enough to get beyond the early waves of ideas. However, these longer sessions should be broken up into smaller segments by injecting various prompts along the way in order to keep the discussion fresh and everyone engaged.

inGenius: A Crash Course on Creativity

It is best to end a brainstorming session on a high note, leaving everyone wanting more.It is fascinating to watch people as they walk into the d. This controversial piece is provocative in that it shifts our attention to the sounds with which we are surrounded all the time.

In college, Seelig took a test that required her to design a process for creating a genetic clone. Imagine It! From an early stage of each project, the team comes together regularly to compare and discuss results. What type of messages do these environments communicate? Trinity Sunday A Bible and a nut shell.