worldcreation.info Manuals Linux Home Networking Pdf

LINUX HOME NETWORKING PDF

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1 About the Site; 2 Linux Home Networking PDF Chapters. The Linux File Server Project. Ch01 Why Host Your Own Site? Ch How To Convert Your Linux Server Into A Router Home networking equipment / devices usually are configured in the factory with an IP address in the. Title Linux Home Networking; Author(s) Neil Gunton; Publisher: worldcreation.info; Hardcover/Paperback: N/A; eBook: HTML and PDF; Language.


Linux Home Networking Pdf

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how best to complete the task in Home Networking Bible. If you run how to use Windows, the Mac, and/or your Linux distribution, as well as basic applications. for home users that want to know a bit more about their Linux system). More information and worldcreation.info available at worldcreation.info Networking don't directly support home networks (e.g., we won't come to your house) This class will give you the basics of setting up a home network. It's very .

Device NamesAn internal, PCMCIA or USB networking device that has appropriate supporting modules installed on a machine will be recognized at boot or by hotplugging when the device plugged into the machine. Ethernet devices recieve the name ethX, where X is a number assigned by the sequence in which the device is detected.

The first device is eth0, second device eth1, etc. Interfaces are configured with a single line. For example, my internal network card eth0, connected to a DSL modem and getting its IP address from DHCP on the modem: iface eth0 inet dhcp Interfaces can be manually started with the ifup and ifdown commands run with superuser authority : sudo ifup eth0 5.

A Two Computer Network with NFS If you just need to share or transfer files between two systems, you can set up a simple network using a crossover cable or switch.

If you want to provide mutual access to files between two machines you will need to set both machines up as NFS servers and clients. If only one machine is being used for file storage, you only need NFS server on the source machine and the NFS client software on the other machine.

Note that this is a crossover cable and not just a regular CAT-5 patch cable. Unless you're using a hub, the wires in the cable have to be "crossed over" to directly connect two PCs. Just plug one cable into the network port of one machine and plug the other end into the other machine. Switch: Optionally, if you wish to share file systems AND an Internet connection, you can interconnect machines by plugging regular Ethernet cables from each machine and the modem into a switch.

Consumer grade switches are inexpensive and readily available anywhere computers are sold. IP Addresses: You will need to configure a static IP address on any machine that is configured as a server. The easiest choice is to use the Class C addresses On a console on the source machine the one with the files to be transferred , type: sudo ifconfig eth0 Network interface static IP address configuration is described in the previous section.

If you also want to connect the server to the Internet through a DSL or able modem, you will have figure out a way to get a consistent IP address supplied to your server by the modem's DHCP service - such as always booting the server first when the network is restarted. This can be an issue with cable modems that assign IP addresses unpredictably and I can offer no reasonable solution.

The options in fourth column indicate not to try to mount at boot time noauto , to allow a regular user not just superuser to mount the drive user and to timeout rather than retrying indefinitely if there is a problem accessing the device soft. If you have a wireless router, the instructions above can be used with the addresses assigned by the router's DHCP server. If you don't have a wireless router, you can create an "Ad-Hoc" wireless network to interconnect the two machines.

The following instructions should be executed on both machines to set the card into ad-hoc mode, specify a frequency, set the network name and set a WEP encryption key.

Note that encryption keys specified as ASCII strings s: must be exactly 5 or 13 characters : sudo iwconfig wlan0 mode Ad-Hoc sudo iwconfig wlan0 channel 4 sudo iwconfig wlan0 essid omega sudo iwconfig wlan0 key s:alpha On the server machine, bring the interface up with the server address: sudo ifconfig wlan0 The following are some errors I encountered and potential fixes.

Some of these date from a previous experience with Fedora and they remain here for completeness. When all else fails, Google is your friend. Test the Connection: If mounting of an NFS file system is freezing or failing, you should first verify that you have connectivity to the server using ping.

These tips should help provide you with a definitive answer by allowing you to better isolate the source of your problem and will help to make its resolution much faster. Chapter 4. There are hundreds of Linux applications on the market, each with their own configuration files and help pages. This variety makes Linux vibrant, but it also makes Linux system administration daunting. This can be invaluable in correlating the timing and causes of related events on your system.

It is also important to know that applications frequently don't display errors on the screen, but will usually log them somewhere. Knowing the precise message that accompanies an error can be vital in researching malfunctions in product manuals, online documentation and web searches.

Syslog, and the logrotate utility that cleans up log files, are both relatively easy to configure but they frequently doesn't get their fair share of coverage in most texts. I've included it here as a dedicated chapter to both emphasize its importance to your Linux knowledge and prepare you with a valuable skill that will help you troubleshoot all the Linux various applications that will be presented throughout the book.

About syslog Syslog is a utility for tracking and logging all manner of system messages from the merely informational to the extremely critical. Each system message sent to the syslog server has two descriptive labels associated with it that makes the message easier to handle.

For example, applications such as mail and cron generate messages with easily identifiable facilities named "mail" and "cron". There are eight in all and they are listed in table This file consists of two columns, the first lists the facilities and severities of messages to expect and the second lists the files to which they should be logged.

This may be more suitable for troubleshooting. Certain applications will additionally log to their own application specific log files and directories independent of the syslog.

2. Install the SSH Server on each device.

Here are some common examples: Apache web server page access logs. Apache webserver messages. Only use tabs on lines that don't start with the " " comment character. Spaces in the file will cause unpredictable results. Issue this command to do so: This is probably one of the best troubleshooting tools available in Linux. Another good command to use apart from "tail" is "grep".

Grep will help you search for all occurrences of a string in a log file, you can pipe it through the "more" command so that you only get one screen at a time. Here is an example. You can also just use the plain old "more" command to see one screen at a time of the entire log file without filtering with "grep". Here is an example:. Here's how to configure your Linux server to start listening for these messages.

Options to syslogd -m 0 disables 'MARK' messages. You will have to restart syslog on the server for the changes to take effect. The server will now start to listen on UDP port which you can verify using either one of the following netstat command variations. Configuring the Linux Client The syslog server is now expecting to receive syslog messages. You now have to configure your remote Linux client to send messages to it. Here are the steps: Determine the IP address and fully qualified hostname of your remote logging host 2.

IP-address fully-qualified-domain- name hostname "loghost". Remember to restart syslog to get the remote logging started. You can now test to make sure that the syslog server is receiving the messages with a simple test such as restarting the lpd printer daemon and making sure the remote server sees the messages.

Linux Client. Apr 11 Syslog Configuration and Cisco Network Devices Syslog reserves facilities "local0" through "local7" for log messages received from remote servers and network devices. Routers, switches, firewalls and load balancers each logging with a different facility can each have their own log files for easy troubleshooting.

If you are logging to a remote syslog server via a firewall, you'll have to allow traffic on this port to pass through the security device.

Syslog messages usually have both their source and destination UDP ports being Logrotate Logrotate is a Linux utility that renames and reuses system error log files on a periodic basis so that they don't occupy excessive disk space. In the case below the weekly option is "commented out" with a " ", allowing for daily updates. In the case below the 4 copy option is "commented out" with a " ", while allowing 7 copies. The files will have the following names with "logfile" being current active version: It is a good practice to verify that all new applications that you want to use the syslog log have configuration files in this directory.

Here are some sample files which define the specific files to be rotated for each application. Activating logrotate The above logrotate settings will not take effect until you issue the following command to do so: Conclusion In the next chapter we'll be covering the installation of Linux applications, and the use of syslog will become increasingly important especially in the troubleshooting of; Linux based firewalls which can be configured to ignore and then log all undesirable packets; the Apache web server which logs all application programming errors generated by some of the popular scripting languages such as PERL and PHP; and finally, Linux mail whose configuration files are probably the most frequently edited system documents of all and which correspondingly suffer from the most mistakes.

This syslog chapter should make you more confident to learn more about these applications via experimentation because you'll at least know where to look at the first sign of trouble. Chapter 5. F edora Linux software is primarily available using RPM package files for default installations, and source RPMs for non standard installations.

As the procedure for installing source RPMs involves compiling source code, they are more easily installed on systems with customized Fedora Linux kernels or device drivers, thereby making life easier for the software developer who wrote the package.

Both package types use standardized commands for installing the software contained inside. Software developers who wish to use a universally recognizable file format across all flavors of Linux will also make their products available as TAR packages. TAR files are generally more difficult to work with than RPM packages as the archived files within them may or may not need to be compiled and the commands to install the software may vary from package to package.

This chapter focuses on the RPM format, which is the format of choice for Fedora Linux software, but also devotes a small section on TAR files near the end as they are still very important.

If you're new to FTP, don't worry, it'll be explained later. It allows you to keep the versions of your software up to date by downloading the required packages with the option of installing them afterwards. This is discussed in more detail in a later section. RPMs Downloaded From rpmfind.

A good general purpose source is RPMfind. Always remember to select the RPM that matches your version of Linux. This makes the files on it immediately accessible whenever you access it without having to use the "mount" command. This will make your Linux system act more like Windows.

You can check this using the following commands. My auto. The first entry is not the mount point. It's where the set of autofs mount points will be. It should have an entry like this. If you need them, just delete the " ". The methods used to get the software from either site are simple, but different enough to be treated separately.

Using The RPMfind Website o Go to the rpmfind link o Type in "dhcp" in the search box o Click the search button o Scroll down for the RPM that matches your version of Fedora o The right hand column has the links with the actual names of the rpm files o Click the link o Save the file to Linux box's hard drive. Anonymous FTP allows you to log in and download files from a FTP server using the username "anonymous" and a password that matches your email address. This way anyone can access the data.

Connected to download. All transfers are logged. Name download. Have fun. Using binary mode to transfer files. Commands are:. Also print " " hash signs on the screen during the download. You'll be prompted for each of the matching RPM files. In the case below we just aborted this download by typing "n". This is especially convenient if you are logged into your Linux box from another machine running a web browser.

You can browse the download site for the RPM you need, right click on the desired link and select "copy shortcut" Windows or "Copy Link Location" Linux. Connecting to linux.

Linux Home Networking

Logging in as anonymous Logged in! It has a number of advantages over more traditional up2date package. Here is a short lists of benefits. This provides the added advantage of you choosing the most reliable sites in your part of the globe. The Fedora Core up2date program crashes after the first failure. It then installs them all. Updating packages could cause programs written by you to stop functioning especially if they rely on the older version's features or syntax.

It has 3 basic sections listed in Table The easiest way to determine the exact URLs to use in the "baseurl" parameters of the [base] and [updates-released] sections of the file is to go to the http: Browse the sites to find the correct locations of the files.

Make sure there is a "headers" sub-directory here, or else it won't work. There will not be RPMs in this sub-directory. There will be RPMs in this sub-directory. Here is a sample yum. Creating Your Own Yum Server. An obvious advantage of using yum is that you can use it to update a yum server at your office with the same directory structure of the mirror download sites on the Fedora website.

10 quick tips to make Linux networking easier

You can then configure all your Fedora servers to use this local yum server for all updates which would significantly reduce your Internet congestion and the associated bandwidth costs. Sample Yum Package Update Here is what a successful yum update looks like using the "yum update" command. This command will update your entire system. The "yum update package-name" command will only update a particular RPM package. Fedora Core 2 - i - Base Server: Fedora Core 2 - i - Released Updates Finding updated packages Downloading needed headers Resolving dependencies Dependencies resolved I will do the following: Running test transaction: Test transaction complete, Success!

Sample Yum Package Installation Here is a sample installation of an individual package using yum. In this case the RPM installed is the net-snmp-utils.

Some Necessary Facts About Yum o You can place a list of packages you never want automatically updated in the [main] section. The list must be separated by spaces. Kernel RPMs may be one of the first sets to go on this list as in the example below. This will have importance for your firewall rules. The first method is using a file previously downloaded to your hard drive, and the other is to install the RPM from some sort of removable media such as a CDROM drive.

How to Install Source RPMs Sometimes the packages you want to install need to be compiled in order to match your kernel version. This requires you to use source RPM files. They usually have a file extension ending with. For example, if you compiled an i architecture version of the RPM it will placed in the i subdirectory.

You will then have to install the compiled RPMs found in their respective subdirectories as you normally would. You then have to install the new RPM file from this directory. This can be done using the rpm command as seen below.

It is a good idea to import both the RedHat and Fedora keys. If you don't install the keys you'll get a "DSA signature" warning that alerts you to the fact that the RPM file may be bogus. V3 DSA signature: The RPM installation program will also alert you to bad keys if you download a corrupted file like the one below.

BAD, key ID 4f2a6fd2 error: In this example we are looking for all packages containing the string "ssh" in the name, regardless of case "-i" meaning ignore case [root bigboy tmp] rpm -qa grep -i ssh openssh-server In this example we test to make sure that the NTP package is installed using the"-qa" qualifier, then we use the "-ql" qualifier to get the file listing. The package name given must match that listed in the rpm -qa command as the version of the package is important.

The best way to view and configure this is by using the chkconfig command. A more detailed explanation will be provided in Chapter 6 which covers the Linux boot process. Installing Software Using TAR Files Another popular software installation file format is the TAR file, which can frequently be obtained from the websites of software developers, and online software libraries such as www.

The Linux tar command is used to archive files and typically have a ". These files are also frequently compressed in the gzip format and when they do, their file extensions will end with ". The commands to extract the data from either type are similar. When a tar file is uncompressed the command to extract the data is "tar -xvf filename. When the archive is compressed the command to use is "tar -xzvf filename. The tar file installation process usually requires you to first uncompress and extract the contents of the archive in a local subdirectory, which frequently has the same name as the tar file.

Here are the initial steps to take to install tar based software:. Issue the tar command to extract the files. Software installation with TAR files can be frustrating, frequently requiring the installation of other supporting TAR files each with their own customized installation commands. RPMs, with the single standardized command format, are usually easier to use and may be the better method to use for newer Linux users.

Conclusion This is just the beginning. If the software you install is intended to make your Linux machine permanently run an application such as a web server, mail server, or any other type of server, then you will have to know how to get the software activated when the system reboots.

This is covered in Chapter 6. Subsequent chapters will then cover the use, configuration, testing and troubleshooting of many of the most popular Linux server applications used today. Chapter 6. Once you have this information you can use it to alter the type of login screen you get as well as which programs start up.

Read on for the details. This stage is known as "single user mode". After completing this first phase, the boot process will run scripts in only one of the other directories depending on the startup mode or "run level". These are listed in Table Here is a sample snippet of the file: Delete the initdefault line you don't need. Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are: Console Text Mode id: Console GUI Mode. See the section below on how to get a GUI login all the time until the next reboot.

Remember that when you log out you will get the regular text based console again. You can have Linux automatically start the X terminal GUI console for every login attempt until your next reboot by using the init command.

Servers that double as personal workstations, or servers that may have to be operated for an extended period of time by relatively non technical staff, may need to be run at runlevel 5 all the time through the init 5 command. If the GUI is running, it will run under session number seven. You'll get a new login prompt for each attempt. System Shutdown And Rebooting The "init" command will allow you to change the current runlevel. X directory. Chkconfig Examples You can use chkconfig to change runlevels for particular packages.

Here we see Sendmail will start with a regular startup at runlevel 3 or 5. Let's change it so that Sendmail doesn't startup at boot. Switch Off Sendmail Starting Up In Levels 3 and 5 [root bigboy tmp] chkconfig --level 35 sendmail off [root bigboy tmp]. Turn it back on again [root bigboy tmp] chkconfig --level 35 mail on [root bigboy tmp] chkconfig --list grep mail sendmail 0: Using chkconfig To Improve Security A default Fedora installation automatically starts a number of daemons that you may not necessarily need for a web server.

The screen output of the "netstat -an" command below shows a typical case. Some ports are relatively easy to recognize. In the examples below we see that TCP ports and , and UDP port are being used by the portmap, xinetd and ntp daemons respectively.

Portmap also has many known security flaws that makes it advisable to be run on a secured network If you don't need any of these three applications, then it's best to shutdown portmap permanently.

NTP, which is covered in Chapter 25, is required for synchronizing your time with a reliable time source, and may be necessary. A number of network applications are reliant on xinetd, as explained in Chapter 17, and it may me required for their operation. In the example below, we've discovered that TCP port is being used by rpc.

The simple solution is to use the grep command to search all the files for the string rpc. We soon discover that the nfslock daemon uses it. If you don't need nfslock, then shut it down permanently. As a rule of thumb, applications listening only on the loopback interface IP address Those listening on all interfaces, depicted as IP address 0.

I usually shutdown nfs, nfslock, netfs, portmap, and cups printing as standard practice on Internet servers. I keep sendmail running as it is always needed to send and receive mail See Chapter 22 for details.

Your needs may be different. Remember to thoroughly research your options before choosing to shut down an application. Use the Linux "man" pages, reference books and the Internet for information. Unpredictable results are always undesirable. Shutting down applications is only a part of server security, firewalls, physical access restrictions, password policies and patch updates need to be considered. Full coverage of server and network security is beyond the scope of this book, but you should always have a security reference guide on hand to guide your final decisions.

Final Tips On chkconfig o In most cases you'll want to modify runlevels 3 and 5 simultaneously AND with the same values. Don't experiment. The commands for starting and stopping the programs covered in this book are covered in each respective chapter. Conclusion The topics discussed in this chapter may seem simple, but like syslog that was covered in Chapter 4, they are an essential part of Linux administration that gets frequently overlooked especially when new software is installed.

Whenever possible, always try to reboot your system to make sure all the newly installed applications startup correctly. Taking the time to configure and test your startup scripts could prevent you from being woken up in the middle of the night while you are on vacation! It is really important. Chapter 7. If you need a refresher, Chapter 4, the RPM chapter, covers how to do this in detail. When searching for the file, remember that the DHCP server RPM's filename usually starts with the word "dhcp" followed by a version number like this: It uses the commands here to configure your network.

You will have to copy the sample dhcpd. Here is the command to do the copying for the version 3. Here is a quick explanation of the dhcpd. Most importantly, there must be a "subnet" section for each interface on your Linux box. Set the amount of time in seconds that a client may keep the IP address. Set the broadcast address and subnet mask to be used by the DHCP clients. If you specify a WINS server for your Windows clients, you need to include the following option in the dhcpd.

You can also assign specific IP addresses based on the clients' ethernet MAC address as follows Host's name is "smallfry":. Check the dhcp-options man page after you do your install. The command to do this follows: For example, in Redhat Version 8. You also can test whether the DHCP process is running with the following command, you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers:.

You will have to add a route for this address on your Linux DHCP server so that it knows the interface on which to send the reply, if not, it sends it to the default gateway.

In both examples below, we're assuming that DHCP requests will be coming in on interface eth0. More information on adding Linux routes and routing may be found in Chapter 2 on Linux Networking. You can't run your DHCP sever on multiple interfaces as you can only have one route to network If you try to do it, you'll discover that DHCP serving working on only one interface. Temporary solution o Add the route to Then, try: Simple DHCP Troubleshooting The most common problems with DHCP usually isn't related to the server, once the server is configured correctly there is no need to change any settings and it therefore runs reliably.

The problems usually occur at the DHCP client's end for a variety of reasons. Here are some simple troubleshooting steps you can go through to ensure that DHCP is working correctly on your network. Here are some steps you can go through to resolve the problem. Pay special attention to your See if you can ping the DHCP server. If you cannot, double check your cabling and your NIC cards.

Starting dhcpd: All rights reserved. For info, please visit http: To get the same behaviour as in 3. Just remember to make sure that the range of IP addresses issued by all DHCP servers on a network don't overlap as it could possibly cause unexpected errors. A DHCP server may be invaluable in an office environment where the time and cost of getting a network engineer to get the work done may make it simpler for Linux systems administrators to do it by themselves.

Creating a Linux DHCP server is straightforward and touches all the major themes in the previous chapters. Now it's time to try something harder, but before we do, we'll do a quick refresher on how to create the Linux users who'll be using many of the applications outlined in the rest of the book. Chapter 8. One of the most important activities in administering a Linux box is the addition of users. Here you'll find some simple examples to provide a foundation for future chapters, though a more detailed description of the process is beyond the scope of this book.

You may use the command "man useradd" to get the help pages on adding users with the useradd command or the "man usermod" to become more familiar with modifying users with the usermod command. Who Is The Super User? The super user with unrestricted access to all system resources and files is the user named "root". You will need to log in as user root to add new users to your Linux box. How To Add Users Adding users takes some planning, read through the steps below before starting: In this example there are three groups "parents", "children" and "soho".

Parents Children Soho. When each new user first logs in, they will be prompted for their new permanent password. The directory name will be the same as their user name. How To Change Passwords You'll need to create passwords for each account.

This is done with the "passwd" command. You will be prompted once for your old password and twice for the new one. New password: Retype new password: Here is how unprivileged user "paul" would change his own password. The "-r" flag removes all the contents of the user's home directory [root bigboy tmp] userdel -r paul. Conclusion It is important to know how to add users, not just so they can log in to our system.

Most server based applications usually run via a dedicated unprivileged user account, for example the MySQL database application runs as user "mysql" and the Apache web server application runs as user "apache". These accounts aren't always created automatically, especially if the software is installed using TAR files. Sometimes Linux users need to be created for unexpected reasons.

For example, Linux servers can be configured to mimic the functionality of Windows file servers by the use of the Samba software suite. Samba, which will be covered in Chapter 9, sometimes requires the creation of a "machine" user account for each client PC on your network. The next few chapters will become interesting for this very reason. Chapter 9. Either configuration will allow everyone at home to have: A detailed description is beyond the scope of this chapter, but this simple explanation should be enough.

This allows each user to have a universal username and password when logging in from all PCs on the network. This chapter will only cover the much more popular PDC methodology used at home. Linux functionality doesn't disappear when you do this.

For added security you can make your Samba and Linux passwords different. You can create your own smb. If you need a refresher, Chapter 5, the RPM chapter, covers how to do this in detail. When searching for the file, remember that the RPM's filename usually starts with the RPM name followed by a version number like this: It is split into five main sections. These are outlined in Table Not created by default. Each SWAT screen is actually a form that covers a separate section of the smb.

For ease of use, each parameter box has its own online help. No comments in your file will be saved. The original Samba smb.

This is very important. The original smb. It would be good practice to become familiar with command line Samba configuration. SWAT doesn't encrypt your login password. This may be a security concern in a corporate environment. The formatting of the file is fairly easy to understand, especially as there are only two entries of interest.

This means you'll have to enter "http: Here's an example of an entry to allow connections only from Notice there are no commas between the entries.

Therefore in this case you can also configure Samba on your Linux server "Bigboy" IP with address Remember that most firewalls don't allow TCP port trough their filters. You may have to adjust your rules for this traffic to pass. When running SWAT in the unsecured mode above you should take the added precaution of using it from the Linux console whenever possible.

Here is how it's done. Use all the defaults when prompted, but make sure you use the server's IP address when prompted for your server's "Common Name" or "hostname". Common Name eg, your name or your server's hostname []: The certificate created only has a day lifetime. Remember to repeat this process next year. Modify Certificate File Permissions The certificate needs to only be read by "root" and the "stunnel" user.

Use the "chmod" and "chgrp" commands to do this. Here is a sample configuration. Define where the SSL certificates can be found. Accept SSL connections on port and funnel it to port for swat. We then configure the new file to be enabled, listening on port and accepting connections only from localhost. We also make sure that the service is "swat-stunnel".

You'll need to disable SWAT to prevent a conflict. If no match is found, the configuration file is ignored. Restart xinetd You'll then need to restart xinetd for all the swat settings to take effect. This is caused by an incompatibility with the "hwcrypto" RPM used for hardware, not software based encryption.

You will need to uninstall "hwcrypto" to get stunnel to work correctly. You will then have to stop stunnel, restart xinetd and start stunnel again. After this, stunel should begin to function correctly. The server will only accept remote connections on port There will be a delay of about 60 to 75 seconds with each login. You have to use the pkill command to stop it and the stunnel command to start it again.

You can also refer to Chapter 3 on network troubleshooting to isolate connectivity issues between the SWAT client and Samba server on TCP port amongst other things. Click on the "Stop All" button 3. Click on the "Start All" button. You may use this to edit the various sections of the smb. The "Global" Section This section governs the general Samba settings and needs to have the following parameters set in order to create a PDC.

Table explains the purpose of each. Very helpful when you need to "browse" your local network for resources. Also known as a local master browser.

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The local master browsers register themselves with the domain master to learn about resources on other networks. And one of the best backup tools for Linux networking is the ifconfig command. Not only will this command return to you with no arguments your network card information, it will also allow you to configure your network card manually.

This is done like so:. This file or files is where the information for each network interface is stored. The format for this file is:. As you can see above, all of my interfaces are set up for dhcp. This is my laptop, which goes with me everywhere, so dhcp is a necessity. But what if I use the wired interface in only one location? For that, I can hard-code the information here under the eth0 interface like so for Ubuntu:. Nearly every time clients come to me with Samba issues, the problem is that they haven't added the user and a password with smbpasswd.

Without doing this, the user will not be able to authenticate to the Samba server. And when using smbpasswd to add a new user, you have to add the "-a" switch like so:. After you hit Enter, you will be asked for the users' password twice.

You must have root access or sudo to pull this off. These 10 quick tips should help make various aspects of Linux networking easier. You never know when you'll wind up having to rely on the command line or you'll need to enlist the help of a graphical front end for iptables. Now, if you do, you should be good to go. Jack Wallen is an award-winning writer for TechRepublic and Linux.

For more news about Jack Wallen, visit his website jackwallen. The format of an address for this file is: Editor's Picks. Inside the Raspberry Pi: How self-driving tractors, AI, and precision agriculture will save us from the impending food crisis.

Smart farming: How IoT, robotics, and AI are tackling one of the biggest problems of the century. Agriculture 4. How digital farming is revolutionizing the future of food.Skip to content. A secondhand PC is adequate in this case.

The perfect Home Network and it all Linux.

In this case. Fedora's version of httpd There is a fixed formatting style with each entry being separated by spaces or quotation marks. Research and development also continues for systems that perform a wide variety of functions -- data and voice recognition might change the way we enter, exit and secure our homes, while service appliances could prepare our food, control indoor temperatures and keep our homes clean.

The Apache We… In this example. Do not bind services to the external interface. This is needed in named virtual hosting only. The Apache Web Server Linux is growing.