KAPLAN USMLE STEP 1 BIOCHEMISTRY FILETYPE PDF
Nov 17, This is the pdf file for USMLE Step 1 Biochemistry edition. Published by Kaplan Medical, a division of Kaplan, Inc. Third Avenue. USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Biochemistry and Medical Genetics by Kaplan By Kaplan Medical. (Part of USMLE Prep). eBook. LIST PRICE $ Best of luck on your Step 1 exam! Kaplan Medical vii SECTION I Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Nucleic Acid Structure and Organization 1 Learning.
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Product Details. Kaplan Publishing December Length: Resources and Downloads. Biochemistry and Medical Genetics eBook Get a FREE e-book by joining our mailing list today!
More books from this author: See more by Kaplan Medical. More books in this series: Thank you for signing up, fellow book lover! See More Categories. Your First Name. Zip Code. Reverse transcription, which produces DNA copies of an RNA, is more com- monly associated with life cycles of retroviruses, which replicate and express their genome through a DNA intermediate an integrated provirus.
Reverse tran- scription also occurs to a limited extent in human cells, where it plays a role in amplifying certain highly repetitive sequences in the DNA Chapter 7. Five-Carbon Sugars Nucleic acids as well as nucleosides and nucleotides are classifi d according to the pentose they contain. If the pentose is ribose, the nucleic acid is RNA ribo- nucleic acid ; if the pentose is deoxyribose, the nucleic acid is DNA deoxyribo- nucleic acid.
Bases There are two types of nitrogen-containing bases commonly found in nucleo- tides: Other purine metabolites, not usually found in nucleic acids, include xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid.
Nucleosides and Nucleotides Nucleosides are formed by covalently linking a base to the number 1 carbon of a sugar Figure I Nucleoside di- and triphosphates are high- energy compounds because of the hydrolytic energy associated with the acid an- hydride bonds Figure I Th nomenclature for the commonly found bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides is shown in Table I According to this convention, the sequence of the strand on the left in Figu e I must be written.
Some of the features of double-stranded DNA include:. A always pairs with T two hydrogen.
Thus, the base sequence on one strand defines the base sequence on the other strand. Thus, total purines equals total pyrimidines.
The hydrophilic sugar-phosphate backbone of each strand is on the outside of the double helix. The hydrogen- bonded base pairs are stacked in the center of the molecule. There are about 10 base pairs per complete turn of the helix.
The biologic function of Z-DNA is unknown, but may be related to gene regulation. Bridge to Pharmacology Daunorubicin and doxorubicin are antitumor drugs that are used in the treatment of leukemias. They exert their effects by intercalating between the bases of DNA, thereby interfering with the activity of topoisomerase II and preventing proper replication of the DNA.
Other drugs, such as cisplatin, which is used in the treatment of bladder and lung tumors, bind tightly to the DNA, causing structural distortion and malfunction. No covalent bonds are broken in this process. Heat, alkaline pH, and chemicals such as formamide and urea are com- monly used to denature DNA.
Kaplan Medical. USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes 7-Book Set
Denatured single-stranded DNA can be renatured annealed if the denaturing condition is slowly removed. For example, if a solution containing heat-denatured DNA is slowly cooled, the two complementary strands can become base-paired again Figure I Such renaturation or annealing of complementary DNA strands is an important step in probing a Southern blot and in performing the polymerase chain reaction reviewed in Chapter 7.
The mixed sample is denatured and then renatured. These molecules may exist as relaxed circles or as supercoiled structures in which the helix is twisted around itself in three-dimensional space. Supercoiling re- sults from strain on the molecule caused by under- or overwinding the double helix:. This form is required for most bio- logic reactions.
They make transient breaks in DNA strands by alternately breaking and resealing the sugar-phosphate backbone.
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Nuclear DNA in eukaryotes is found in chromatin associated with histones and nonhistone proteins. The basic packaging unit of chromatin is the nucleosome Figure I Cells in interphase contain two types of chromatin: Figure I Euchromatin generally corresponds to the nucleosomes nm fibers loosely as- sociated with each other looped nm fibers.
Heterochromatin is more highly condensed, producing interphase heterochromatin as well as chromatin charac- teristic of mitotic chromosomes. Figure I shows an electron micrograph of an interphase nucleus containing euchromatin, heterochromatin, and a nucleolus. The nucleolus is a nuclear region specialized for ribosome assembly discussed in Chapter 3.
During mitosis, all the DNA is highly condensed to allow separation of the sister chromatids.
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Th s is the only time in the cell cycle when the chromosome structure is visible. Chromosome abnormalities may be assessed on mitotic chromosomes by karyotype analysis metaphase chromosomes and by banding techniques prophase or prometaphase , which identify aneuploidy, translocations, deletions, inversions, and duplications.
What is the percent- age of guanine in this genome? Endonuclease activation and chromatin fragmentation are characteristic features of eukaryotic cell death by apoptosis. Which of the following chro- mosome structures would most likely be degraded first in an apoptotic cell? A medical student working in a molecular biology laboratory is asked by her mentor to determine the base composition of an unlabeled nucleic acid sample left behind by a former research technologist.
What is the most likely source of the nucleic acid in this sample? A nucleoside consists of a base and a sugar. The figure shows the nucleoside adenosine, which is the base adenine attached to ribose. The nm fiber, without the H1, is the most open struc- ture listed.
The endonuclease would attack the region of unprotected DNA between the nucleosomes. Only a few viruses e. Each of these pa- rental strands is then used as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand semiconservative replication. During cell division, each daughter cell re- ceives one of the two identical DNA molecules. The bacterial chromosome is a closed, double-stranded circular DNA molecule having a single origin of replication.
Separation of the two parental strands of DNA creates two replication forks that move away from each other in opposite directions around the circle.
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Replication is, thus, a bidirectional process. The two replication forks eventually meet, resulting in the production of two identical circular molecules of DNA. Each eukaryotic chromosome contains one linear molecule of dsDNA having multiple origins of replication. Bidirectional replication occurs by means of a pair of replication forks produced at each origin.
Completion of the process results in the production of two identical linear molecules of dsDNA sister chromatids. DNA replication occurs in the nucleus during the S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. The two identical sister chromatids are separated from each other when the cell divides during mitosis.
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This is only a preview. Load more. Search in the document preview. Published by Kaplan Medical, a division of Kaplan, Inc. Retail ISBN: Harden, M. Biochemistry Chapter 1: Transcription and RNA Processing. The Genetic Code, Mutations, and Translation. Genetic Strategies in Therapeutics.
Techniques of Genetic Analysis. Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes. Glycolysis and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase. Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Amino Acid Metabolism. Medical Genetics Chapter 1: Single-Gene Disorders. Population Genetics. Genetic Diagnosis. RNA copy of a small section of a chromosome average size of human gene, — nucleotide pairs DNA copy of entire chromosome average size of human chromosome, nucleotide pairs Transcription occurs in the nucleus throughout interphase Occurs during S phase Translation of RNA protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle.Resources and Downloads.
USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes Biochemistry and Medical Genetics
Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes. Amino Acid Metabolism. Below are some of the commonly tested agents with the appropriate phase of the cell cycle they target:. Nuclear chromosome E. Harden, M.
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