ASTM A384 EBOOK
A / AM() Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Format, Pages, Price. PDF. ASTM A - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Free download. This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-.
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ASTM A STANDARD PRACTICE FOR SAFEGUARDING AGAINST WARPAGE AND W/D S/S BY ASTM A/AM. Format. Details. Price (USD) . PDF. The design and fabrication of the product to be galvanized are the responsibilities of the designer and the fabricator. Practice ASTM A provides guidance. these design practices along with those listed in ASTM A Practice for Providing High Quality .. and/or alignment are provided in ASTM A, Safeguarding.
Embrittlement is characterized by degradation of the mechanical properties of titanium alloys such as decrease in ductility, decrease in tensile strength, decrease in the number of fatigue load cycles to failure and increase in the rate of crack propagation 18 , 21 — As the concentration increases, hydrogen-containing phases other than the bulk solid solution can develop and at critical hydrogen concentrations the generated stresses can relax by producing dislocations, grain rotation, microvoids and hydrogen induced cracking HIC 19 , In this work, in vivo incidence of severe corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement on the surface of the Ti-6Al-4V modular stem hip-replacements is investigated.
Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by means of SEM, x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis in order to verify precipitation of hydrides and hydrogen induced effects in the crevices of the modular tapers.
To the best of our knowledge, hydrogen embrittlement of Ti-6Al-4V has not been previously reported in retrieved orthopaedic implants. Materials and Methods Samples from three retrieved, cementless, modular body femoral hip prostheses from a larger study involving thirty three retrieved Ti-6Al-4V implants 25 were chosen for analysis. These three were specifically selected because the interfaces of the components presented evidence of severe corrosion and deposition of corrosion debris and represented the most severe examples of the pool of thirty three implants examined.
Totally, ten sectioned parts were examined from the three implants for evidence of severe corrosion at the connection between the male taper of the proximal stem and the female taper of the sleeve. Detailed clinical data and surface damage scores for the stem tapers and sleeve samples are given in Table 1. Figure 1 illustrates the samples used in this study emphasizing the degree of degradation present in the contacting interfaces. Fleming, I. Field observations of clogging in a landfill letéléchargemente collection system.
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 36 4 Foose, G. Evaluating the effectiveness of landfill liners. Kamon, ed. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp.
Predicting leakage through composite landfill liners. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 6 Forget, B.
Lessons learned from 10 years of leak detection surveys on geomembranes. Fox, P. Analytical solutions for stability of slurry trench. Frangos, W. Electrical detection of leaks in lined waste disposal ponds.
Geophysics, Frank, T. Long-term behavior of water content and density in an earthen liner. Fratalocchi, E. Durability assessment of a confinement cutoff wall for a phosphogypsum landfill.
Freeman, H. Gee, G. Groundwater recharge in arid regions: Review and critique of estimation methods. Hydrological Processes, Geosyntec Consultants. Gilbert, R. Performance Reliability of Landfill Lining Systems. Peak versus residual strength for waste containment systems. Uncertainty in back analysis of slopes. Giroud, J. Granular filters and geotextile filters.
Lafleur and A. Rollin, eds. Bitech Publishers, Richmond, Canada, pp. Equations for calculating the rate of liquid migration through composite liners due to geomembrane defects. Geosynthetics International, 4 Leakage through liners constructed with geomembranes—Part II. Composite liners. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 8 2 Hydrated area of a bentonite layer between two geomembranes. Geosynthetics International, 11 4 Gleason, M. Calcium and sodium bentonite for hydraulic containment applications.
Goodall, D. Pollutant migration from two sanitary landfill sites near Sarnia, Ontario. Gordon, M. Regulation, construction and performance of clay lined landfills in Wisconsin. Griffin, R. Open File Report No. Gulec, S. Geosynthetics International 11 2 Haas, W. Sensors and monitoring systems for long-term performance monitoring—Three perspectives.
Accessed May 18, Haikola, B. Hazardous waste landfill performance as measured by primary letéléchargemente quantity. Hanson, J.
Thermal analysis of GCLs at a municipal solid waste landfill.
Structural Design Guide to the ACI Building Code
Integrated temperature and gas analysis at a municipal solid waste landfill. Hearn, N. Pore structure and permeability. Klieger and J.
Lamond, eds. Heerten, G. Auswirkungen von Wassergehaltsschwankungen in vernadelten geosynthetischen tondichtungsbahnen auf ihre Wirksamkeit als Dichtungselement. DGGT, Essen, pp. Henken-Mellies, W.
Long-termLong-term field test of a clay geosynthetic barrier in a landfill cover system. Henning, J. Membrane behavior of two backfills from field-constructed soil-bentonite cutoff walls.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 10 : Hruby, V. Understanding electrical leak location surveys: Consequences for the design of geomembrane liner systems. Hsuan, Y. Antioxidant depletion lifetime in high density polyethylene geomembranes. Durability and lifetime of polymer fibers with respect to reinforced geosynthetic clay barriers, i.
Effects of outdoor exposure on high density polyethylene geomembranes. Ismail, M. Measurement and modeling of gas transfer in cracked mortars. Materials and Structures, 39 1 Izadi, M. Measurement of gas permeability through clay soils. Nielsen and M. Sara, eds. James, A. Field performance of GCL under ion exchange conditions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 10 Jayawickrama, P.
Leakage rates through flaws in membrane liners. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 6 Jefferis, S.
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Clays and Clay Minerals, 52 6 Long-term hydraulic conductivity of a geosynthetic clay liner GCL permeated with inorganic salt solutions.
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 4 Johnson, G. Field verification of clay liner hydraulic conductivity. Diffusive contaminant transport in natural clay: A field example and implications for clay-lined waste disposal sites.
Environmental Science and Technology, 23 3 Jones, D. Landfill lining stability and integrity: The role of waste settlement. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Kajita, L. An improved contaminant resistant clay for environmental clay liner applications.
Clays and Clay Minerals, 45 5 Kaloush, K. Cracking characteristics of asphalt rubber mixtures. Petit, I. Al-Qadi, and A. Millien, eds. Karol, R.
Chemical Grouting and Soil Stabilization, 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. Katsumi, T. Factors affecting the chemical compatibility and barrier performance of GCLs.
Performance-based design of landfill liners. Engineering Geology, Effect of prehydration on hydraulic performance of geosynthetic clay liners permeated with inorganic chemical solutions. Shim, C. Yoo, and H. Jeon, eds. Long-term hydraulic conductivity of modified GCL permeated with inorganic chemical solutions.
Hydraulic conductivity of nonprehydrated geosynthetic clay liners permeated with inorganic solutions and waste letéléchargemente. In Soils and Foundations in review. Kavazanjian, Jr. Cost and performance evaluation of alternative final covers. Unsaturated flow flux assessment for evapotranspirative cover compliance. Geosynthetic barriers for environmental protection at landfills. Kuwano and J. Koseki, eds. Kays, W. Keller, C. Fracture permeability and groundwater flow in clayey till near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Khandelwal, A. One-dimensional contaminant transport model for the design of oil-bentonite slurry walls. Petersburg, FL. Department of Energy, DuPont Co. Khire, M. Water balance modeling of earthen landfill covers. King, K. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30 1 Klett, N. Koerner, G.
IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:
In-situ temperature monitoring of geomembranes. Geotextile filters used for letéléchargemente collection systems: Testing, design and field behavior. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 10 Koerner, R. Construction and Geotechnical Methods in Foundation Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. Designing with Geosynthetics, 5th ed. Vertical barriers: Geomembranes. Analysis and design of veneer cover soils.
Geosynthetics International, 3 5 Kollek, J. The determination of the permeability of concrete to oxygen by the Cembureau method—A recommendation. Materials and Structures, 22 3 Kolstad, D. Hydraulic conductivity and swell of nonprehydrated geosynthetic clay liners permeated with multispecies inorganic solutions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 12 Krajcinovic, D. Chemomicromechanics of brittle solids.
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 40 5 Kraus, J. Freeze-thaw cycling and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite barriers. Krol, M. Diffusion of TCE through soil-bentonite slurry walls.
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Soil and Sediment Contamination, 13 1 Kruempelbeck, I. Inch pounds and SI units are to be regarded as not necessarily exact equivalents. Within the text of this specification and where apprdopriate, SI units are shown in parentheses. Referenced Documents 2. Factors in Warpage and Distortion 3.
In nearly every case, regardless of size, channels require straightening after galvanizing. This is not true of an I-beam, pipe, H-column, or any other section that is symmetrical about both its major axes. Channels and other nonsymmetrical sections should be avoided for the framework of a sheet metal assembly that is to be hot-dip galvanized whenever it is possible to use symmetrical shapes or sections.
In the case of sheet metal, the product which has a right-angle bend in the sheet metal itself will remain flatter and be freer from distortion if the radius of the bend is as large as practicable.
If these stresses are combined with other stresses during hot-dip galvanizing, the stress relieving effect of galvanizing may permit distortion to occur. If the overlapped area is not properly vented or if it is incorrectly sealed, the pressure from the expansion of the trapped gases in the overlapped area can distort the two pieces of steel that are welded together and, in the worst case, can cause an explosion underneath the zinc bath surface destroying the parts and causing a potential safety problem at the hot-dip galvanizing facility.
Suggested Corrections for Panel Fabrication 4. Clamps may be applied to prevent shifting or movement during the welding operation. In welding any intermediate lengths along one side of a common member, care should be taken to prevent warpage of the common member due to the application of high heat on the same side at various intervals along its length.Long-term behavior of water content and density in an earthen liner. Brown, L. Materials and Structures, 39 1 Atkinson, A.
Soil Science Society of America Journal,