TROANO DOCUMENT EPUB
But Las Casas himself, in whose possession the documents were, here comes to .. When the Abb^ Brasseur edited the Codex Troano he also attempted an. 11 févr. Rapport à Son Excellence M. le ministre de l'instruction publique. 1. ptie. Manuscrit troano, monographie et exposition du système graphique. This document was subsequently taken to S pain by the celebrated t Troano., in the Re vue de P hilolog ie ct d'E thno grap hic.,. P aris.
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He claimed to have ancient documents describing the destruction of Mu and the solution of the Atlantis mystery after studying the an Troano Codex in the . The great material advantage of this document lies in its being a very ancient that served to read the Manuscrit Troano will allow me to read the Ms. de Dresde, . called the Troano Document, it is now located in the British Museum. Estimated to be at least 3, years old, it was translated by the historian Augustus Le.
What is the position of L with respect to P l ux vr 2 vr tc 3 pd ux in the above arrangement? What is the code for "weekend' in the 3 Fifth to the right given code language? Directions : Study the following In a certain code language, "dress code information carefully and answer the formal meeting" is written as "dk pd jn te" questions given below: P, Q, R, T, V, W and "wear black formal dress" is written as "pd dk Z are seven football players each playing for a Id le" "formal meeting this weekend" is different team, viz.
Green, Red, Blue, with at written as "yi te dk vr" "black code this least two of them in each of these teams. Each weekend" is written as "jn vr Id yf".
All the of them likes a fruil, viz. Apple, Guava, codes are two letter codes. Banana, Orange, Mango. Papaya and In the given code language, what does ie' Watermelon, not necessarily in the same stands for? Q plays with V in team Blue and he 1 wear 2 formal 3 dress likes Mango. None of these who play for 4 black 5 meeting either team Red or team Green likes either In the given code language, what is the Guava or Banana.
T plays with only the one code for 'dress'? W likes Papaya and he 1 in 2 ro 3 Id 4 pd plays in team Red. The one who likes Orange 5 td does not play in team Red. Z likes Watermelon and he plays for team Green. R does married to K.
A Study of the Manuscript Troano/Chapter 2
R is the daughter of P. P is the not like Guava. Which of the following players play for R 1 Grandfather 2 Daughter 3 Son 4 W.
V 5 None of these 4 Cannot be determined 5 Brother In which team do throe of them play? How is X related to H? Which of the following combinations is 4 Son-in-law 5 Son correct? Who likes Guava? The statements are 1 Q 2 V 3 T 4 followed by two conclusions.
Study the Data inadequate 5 None of these conclusions based on the given statements and Which fruit does T like? Pointing to a woman, Mr. Suresh said, 3 If only conclusion I is true she is the daughter of my grandfather's only 4 If only conclusion 11 is true daughter How is Suresh related to the woman 5 If neither conclusion 1 nor II is true?
V is the sister of X. Which of the following live s between O Directions : Study the given and the one who runs for m? Seven athletes — M. R 2 Both M and R and S live on seven different floors of a 3 Both M and the one who runs for m building but not necessarily in the same order. As per the given arrangement, four of the and so on till the topmost floor is numbered 7.
Which one of the following in a marathon m. The one who 7 — S 3 Floor numbered 4 — N runs for m lives on floor numbered 4. Only two people live 8. How many people live between S and O? The one who runs for 1 Five 2 One 3 None 4 m lives on one of the even numbered Four floors above R. Only two people live between 5 Three the one who runs for m and the one who 9.
Who amongst the following runs for runs for m. N lives on one of the floors m? The If the total distance covered by B and M is number of people living between the one who m. What is the difference of the distance Directions : Read the fallowing 4 The ODO who runs for m lives information and answer ' the given questions.
T is the daughter of P. P is the father of for.
B is the daughter-in- Directions : Study the given law of A. W is the son of B. How is P related to B? Point C law is 3m to the north of Point M. If Y is the husband of T. Point V is to the north of to Y? Point I. In which direction is Point V with respect How is A related to W? If a person walks 15m towards east from information carefully to answer the given Point V.
Six books — A, B. F is 4 6 m thicker than B but thinner than C. A is thinner 5 8 m than both B and E, but not thinnest. E is thinner than F.
The one wearing Tissot sits second io thick. Note: The Thickness of all the books is the left of X. Only three people sit between in whole numbers. The one If E is 12cm thick, then which of the wearing Casio sits second to the right of the following is true about E? Neither X nor W is 1 F is 2 cm thicker than E. The one wearing Swass is not total thickness of E and C together is 22 cm. Z is not wearing Tissot.
The one given statements are true wearing Titan sits lo the immediate right of Z. C is an immediate neighbour of one wearing If A is 2 cm thicker than D. Only three people sit between C and Y. Only three people sit between F and the one 1 Cannot be determined 2 15 cm wearing Omega. Neither F nor E is wearing 3 5 cm 4 11 cm 5 3 cm Rado. Only one person sits between the ones With respect to the thickness of given wearing Omega and Rolex. Who amongst the following sits to the 1 17 cm 2 21 cm 3 23 cm 4 19 immediate left of the one wearing Rado?
Who amongst the following is wearing questions. Eight different people viz. Four of the following Five are alike on a order. Each one of them is wearing a watch of certain way based on the given arrangement a different brand viz. Rado, Casio, and thus form a group.
Which is the one that Tissot, Rolex. Swass, Omega and Longings does not belong to that group? Q is not an brand of watch worn by E? Who amongst the following sit exactly north between X and the one wearing Rado when then the other person faces south and vice- counted from the right of X?
W does not sit at an extreme 2 Z and the one wearing Longines end of the line. U and Q face the same direction i.
As per the given arrangement, which of Eight friends—P. U, V and W are the following statements is not true with seated in a straight line with equal distance respect to U?
Some of them are facing north" 2 Only three persons sit between U and while some are facing south. R sits 4 All the given statements arc true second to the left of V. Which of them does hot belong to that group? All pastries are cookies.
How many persons sit to the left of T? Conclusions: 4 One 5 Three I. Atleast some cookies are Which of the following represents the II. Some sandwiches are immediate neighbours of P? R : Statements : Some keys are locks. S Some locks are drawers.
Directions : In each question below All drawers are tables. Conclusions : two conclusions numbered I and II. You have I. No key is a drawer to take the given statements to be true even if II.
At If is some keys are they seem to be at variance with commonly drawers. Read all the conclusions and Conclusions : then decide which of the given conclusions 1. All keys can never be tables. Atleast some locks are tables. Give Statements: All frames are pictures. Conclusions : 2 If both conclusions I and II follow. As there is some doubt as to which of the two years—1 Kan or 1 Cauac—the cycle began with, I give tables Nos.
III and IV for both. By this time the reader is sufficiently conversant with this sytem to know that if the cycles commence with 1 Kan, as in the left-hand table No. Ill , the year following 13 Cauac would be 1 Kan and the commencement of another cycle. If the true method were as given in the right-hand table No. IV , then 13 Ix would be followed by 1 Cauac, the first year of the next cycle.
This follows, as will readily be seen, from the fact that 52 is the least common multiple of 4 and The importance of knowing which one of these arrangements was that used by the Mayas will be apparent from the following illustration: A certain event is dated a particular day in the year 1 Ix; if the table we have headed 1 Kan be correct it Would then be in the 27th year of the cycle; if the other be the true method it would then be in the 40th year of the cycle, or thirteen years later.
As this system admits of fifty-two changes in the day on which the year begins, it would require fifty-two different calendars to cover one cycle, just as fourteen calendars are required to suit all the years of our system, seven for the ordinary years and seven for the leap-years.
As it would require much time and space to write these out in full, I have adopted the expedient shown in the following table No. V , of abbreviating the work.
First we have at the left four columns, each containing the names of the twenty days of the month. As I am inclined to believe that the author of the manuscript adopted the system which had Cauac as the first day of the cycle, the first or left-hand column commences with this day, the others, Kan, Muluc, and Ix, following in the order in which they are found in the list of days.
The first column is therefore the one to be used for all the Cauac years; the second for all the Kan years; the third for all the Muluc years, and the fourth for all the Ix years. The reader must be careful to remember, that when.
As each of the four leading days or "year-bearers," as they were called by the Mayas, can have but thirteen different numbers it is unnecessary to extend our columns of numbers further than thirteen.
Table V. By referring to the table No. II of days and mouths we observe that when we have completed the thirteenth column, or the column of the thirteenth month, the next, or fourteenth month, commences with 1; just as the first month; the fifteenth with 8, as the second; the sixteenth with 2, as the third; the seventeenth with 9, as the fourth; and the eighteenth with 3, as the fifth.
The reader must bear in mind that, although we have numbered the months as commencing with the left-hand column, which has 1 for its upper figure, yet this only holds good when the year is 1 Cauac, 1 Kan, 1 Muluc, or 1 Ix, and for none of the other years.
The first month of the year may be any one of the thirteen columns, thus: 8 Cauac, 8 Kan, 8 Muluc, and 8 Ix have the second column, which has 8 for its upper figure, as their first month; then the one commencing with 2 will be the second month column, that with 9 the third, with 3 the fourth, with 10 the fifth, with 4 the sixth, with 11 the seventh, with 5 the eighth, with 12 the ninth, with 6 the tenth, with 13 the eleventh, the last or one commencing with 7 the twelfth.
Now we go back to the first—commencing with 1—which will be the thirteenth, with 8 the fourteenth, with 2 the fifteenth, with 9 the sixteenth, with 3 the seventeenth, with 10 the eighteenth.
Thus we count through and go back to the left, and so continue until we reach the number of the month desired. Now, to illustrate the method of using the table, let us find in what months and on what days of the months in the years 11 Cauac, 11 Kan, 11 Muluc, and 11 Ix, the day 8 Ahau will fall. For the year 11 Cauac we must look to the Cauac column. We find here that Ahau is the second day of the month; running our eyes along the second transverse line, we find the figure 8 in the thirteenth column, which has 7 as the top number; going back to the column which has 11 as the upper or top number and counting the columns up to this that has 7 as the top number , we find it to be the sixth month.
We thus ascertain that 8 Ahau of the year 1 1 Cauac is the second day of the sixth month. To find where it falls in 11 Kan we must first find Ahau in the Kan column.
Therefore 8 Ahau of the year 11 Kan is the 17th day of the second and also of fifteenth month. We also find that 8 Ahau of the year 11 Ix is the seventh day of the ninth month. If I have succeeded in making this complicated system thus far intelligible to the reader, I may hope to succeed in conveying a correct idea of what is to follow.
Now let us test our arrangement by a historical example. In the Perez manuscript translated by Stephens and published in his "Yucatan," Vol. The year 4 Kan commences with the column of our table which has 4 for the top figure. However, the intertwining of script and image can involve much more subtle and complex relationships in which the particular arrangement of graphemes in relation to elements of imagery and within the conceptual space defined by imagery convey important semantic and syntactic information.
In these cases, the script is arranged to form an image and the two dimensions of the Maya polygraphic system coalesce to form a single entity with a unified—albeit multi-level—semantics. They provide striking illustrations of the hybrid nature of Maya writing and of its position as part of a broader polygraphic system; none is more illustrative of the interplay between imagery and writing than Stela J.
Unlike them, it does not bear his portrait. Script blocks on the narrow sides of the stela follow the standard paired-column format and have no accompanying imagery. The long script segment on the eastern face of the monument Fig. The west face of the stela Fig. The first records the date on which the monument was dedicated 9. The text then refers to an important round date—9. The third section moves forward in time to record the accession on 9. Among the Maya, some versions of this motif appeared as knots signifying ancestors or ancestral connections see Wagner, while others—such as the example found on Stela J—referenced mechanisms of legitimation beyond ancestral ties and require a broader interpretive lens.
This more general significance was salient at every scale, from kingship to family head, and would have been known to all inhabitants of the region. In the case of Stela J, the layout of the text does not resemble a knot but rather represents a mat and its more general connotations. The use of this element to structure the face of a royal stela directed toward the end of the formal causeway, by which people from elite residential zones—as well as the rest of the eastern valley and more distant areas—would have entered the civic center, would have facilitated reading of the monument even among those who might not have been literate in the script.
The grapheme segments are arranged so that they frame a face, whose graphic elements identify it as a mountain and cave, a place of origin, where ancestors dwell, and connect it with the water-mountain metaphor for the sovereign city-state, seat of legitimate authority. In addition to what seems to be unusual syntax, the layout, with short vertical and horizontal segments laid out to frame a stylized face, contributes uncertainty about the reading order of the segments.
The subject matter is distinct from that on the east face: apart from a possible oblique reference to the dynastic founder in what is likely the first passage, the script strings deal entirely with deities and with mythic times and places. Three passages name days that have the important ritual almanac position 1 Ajaw. Two of them are concerned with the endings of very long time periods and refer to deities and mythic places. The most straightforward section refers to the waning efficacy of deities at the time of the dedication of the stela.
At least two of the same deities appear to be named on the west face of Stela J. Intended or not, one function of the unusual organization may have been to free readers from the rigid order prescribed in conventional Maya script strings. The layout of the script in relation to the imagery on the west face Fig. The positioning of the graphemes creates the image of a face, strikingly similar to a mask composition on the west rear face of Stela B.
Maya cosmology—like belief systems elsewhere in Mesoamerica—held that all things were animate and thus could be given faces. This focus on animacy is one reason for the widespread use of masks in Maya culture, and it does not require a large interpretive leap to conclude that Stela J itself was conceptualized as a living thing. The placement of the pupils may be a reference to the sun god, who is sometimes depicted as cross-eyed.
Curls in the area below the eyes swirl upward, suggesting nostrils. The open rectangle at the base of the face is the mouth, and the T-shaped element may indicate a filed tooth similar to the one seen on many depictions of Maya deities.
The inverted triangle of scallops in the mouth and in the cleft at the top of the head, likely variants of the TUN sign, reinforce the cave reading. The wavy lines that enclose and depend from the TUN variants resemble depictions of liquids in Maya imagery. Dripping stones, a reference to stalactites, would be entirely appropriate in the context of a representation of a cave association.
A dripping tooth would be particularly evocative. In Mesoamerica, caves are widely conceptualized as the dwelling places of the ancestors Henderson and Hudson, , so a cave reference in the imagery would echo the emphasis on ancestors—both human and divine—in the script strings.
Caves are also closely associated with springs and are often considered to be sources of rain and water in general. The mat, a pan-Mesoamerican symbol of power and legitimate authority, faces the formal entry causeway. It may be that a substantial fraction of the visitors arriving on the Sepulturas causeway were not culturally or linguistically Maya. Each combines script blocks with his portrait and other complex imagery. This arrangement reflects associations that appear in many facets of Maya practice: between east and youth, west and seniority.
The skirt and the shell elements at the waist suggest that Stela H was meant to convey female associations that contrast with the emphasis on distinctively male elements in the monuments of the western cluster.
The sarcophagus lid bears an elegant depiction in relief of Pakal in front of the world tree that marks the vertical axis of the universe Fig. Pakal, in death, falls into its fleshless jaws and perhaps is reborn from them as well.
Numéros en texte intégral
One aspect of texts in what they identify as a Mayan narrative tradition is division into episodes, with special devices marking the transitions between them. In the sarcophagus lid script string, each side of the lid is occupied by one episode; the beginning of each new episode is marked by reference to a time earlier than the last date previously mentioned. The same kind of temporal flashback is one of the devices that marks episode transitions in Chol narratives.
Pakal, the 7th century ruler buried in the sarcophagus, falls into the jaws of the underworld in front of the world tree that connects the heavens and the underworld. Graphemes on the trunk and branches are indicators of supernatural qualities. A long script string recording the deaths of Pakal, his parents, and earlier rulers extends around the edge of the lid; portraits of many of them, depicted as trees emerging from the earth, appear on the sides of the sarcophagus itself.
Shifting registers, the imagery on the top of the lid, depicting the world tree, continues the sequence with the fifth direction: center or nadir-zenith. The death of Pakal is recorded on the edge that is just below the skeletal jaws at the base of the world tree: that is, in the underworld.
Their busts are repeated on the opposite, north, side of the sarcophagus; this places them simultaneously above the world tree, that is, in the celestial realm, which is another appropriate location for ancestors.
Terraced platforms on the east and west evoke the path of the sun; a southern building has nine doorways, referring to the nine levels or regions of the underworld. The ruler placed a stela with script and imagery celebrating his accession and genealogy in an enclosure on the north side, the celestial realm. These directional associations can be found in many other aspects of Maya thought and practice as well.
Strings of graphemes occupy the front edge of the bench and its legs. Busts of male and female figures appear in the eyes. The figures in the eyes are very simply dressed, making it unlikely that they portray the living individuals named in the text just above.
It is more probable that they are intended to represent a generic ancestral pair, and by extension, ancestors, fathermothers, in general. This usage, in which a pair of elements refers to a class of things or beings to which they belong and whose limits they may define, is equivalent to the pattern of parallelism of elements best known in the form of couplets that is a favored mode of Mayan discourse and literature Monod Becquelin, ; Hull, ; Christenson, , but in the mimetic register.
Busts in the eyes stand for a generic ancestral pair, fathermothers. The pairing of elements to define a class of beings reflects the importance of parallel elements, especially couplets, in Mayan discourse and literature; here they appear in the mimetic register.
Concluding Remarks 46It is certainly true that not all messages and concepts are reducible to words. Complex imagery may employ the organization of space, relations between figures and background, and color to convey very detailed information in highly nuanced ways that would be difficult to reduce to script Gruzinski, , p. However, the complementarity of script and image in Maya writing is not simply a shift from textual to mimetic register.
Nor is it reiteration of content, unchanged, in another register. Something is added to the message and often it is linguistic information. The relationship of script and imagery in Maya writing is intimate and fundamental, not the occasional choice of some artists and scribes to incorporate another register.Which of the following is true with respect even if they seem lobe at variance from to the given arrangement?
We are now prepared to discuss the question presented as to whether the numerals and day characters found so frequently in connection with each other are simply dates, somewhat as we find them in our ordinary calendars, or not.
The west face of the stela Fig. The essence of Maya writing is simultaneous, coordinated communication of meanings through script and imagery. Conclusions: I. Mural painted on the west wall of a late precolumbian temple.
P is the father of for. Script and imagery are integrally related and closely focused on glorification of kings and legitimation of their power.
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